Vascular Dementia Assignment Paper

Explain the diagnostic criteria for your assigned Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder
Explain the evidenced-based psychotherapy and psychopharmacologic treatment for your assigned neurocognitive disorder. Vascular Dementia Assignment Paper
Identify the risks of different types of therapy and explain how the benefits of the therapy that might be achieved might outweigh the risks.
Support your rationale with references to the Learning Resources or other academic resources
The PMHNP needs to consider not only the client but also the “family as client.”
Please use the following 4 references and 3 more.
1
Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
Chapter 21, “Neurocognitive Disorders” (pp. 694–741)
2
Gabbard, G. O. (2014). Gabbard’s treatment of psychiatric disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publications.
Chapter 66, “Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder
3
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
“Neurocognitive Disorders”
4
Note: You will access this book from the Walden Library databases.

Stahl, S. M. (2014). Prescriber’s Guide: Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Vascular Neurocognitive (vascular dementia) disorders affect the consciousness of the human brain as a result of disrupted supply of blood. It is triggered by the normal aging process, diabetes, hypertension and damaging of blood vessels especially the blockage or narrowing of brain arteries. Sachdev et al (2014) associate the condition with the decline of cognitive functions characterized by hyperintensities of the white matter, strategic and multiple strokes which affect the problem-solving abilities, judgment, orientation, language and memory.

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Diagnosis Criteria

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Association Internationale pour la Recherché et l’Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) criteria is appropriate for the diagnostic since it combines the criteria for vascular and dementia diseases and therefore, it provides an effective way to link up the two components of the disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It also combines the CT and MRI recommendations which provide sufficient operational criteria for the diagnostic of not only vascular dementia but also cerebrovascular diseases (Sachdev, 2014). Vascular Dementia Assignment Paper

The criteria involves the determination of dementia manifested through memory loss and loss of cognitive functions as well as the investigation of cerebrovascular disease characterized by the identification of focal signs (Gabbard, 2014). The relationship between the two conditions is then determined based on the neuropathologic, radiologic and clinical features for thalamic dementia, subcortical vascular dementia and cortical dementia.

Psychotherapy and Psychopharmacologic Treatment

Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder shortens the patient’s life inevitably and is incurable as well. However, the progression of the disease can be slowed down through psychopharmacologic and psychotherapy treatments. Psychotherapy involves the delivery of mental and moral support for the patient and the caregivers as well as the family members through counseling and behavioral change (Sadock, Sadock & Ruiz, 2014). It enhances cognitive stimulation through physical exercises and activities that improve language abilities, problem-solving skills, and memory improvement.

On the other hand, psychopharmacologic treatment involves the administration of medication to patients (Stahl, 2014). As such, patients are given anticoagulants to manage blood clots risks and the occurrence of further strokes. Other medications include statins, clopidogrel, warfarin, and aspirins as well as diabetes medication and haloperidol which prevent extreme distress and persistent aggression (Stahl, 2014). According to a study by Orgeta et al (2014) involving 439 participants, psychotherapy and psychopharmacologic treatments are effective in reducing dementia symptoms and also improve the cognitive abilities of an individual.

Risks and Benefits

Drugs used to manage the vascular dementia disorder have severe side effects on the patients which limits the effectiveness of the therapy. On the other hand, the purchase of medication and administration of counseling therapies impose financial constraints to the family. However, benefits of the treatments outweigh the risks, particularly when combined together. For instance, studies by Koch, Kunz, Lykou, and Cruz (2014) observed that simple dance therapies improved the quality of life and cognitive abilities when utilized as psychotherapy interventions for dementia patients. Further research revealed that a combination of this therapy with psychopharmacologic treatment improve clinical outcomes as observed from 23 evidence-based primary studies based on the summary of research from the past 20 years (Koch, Kunz, Lykou & Cruz, 2014).

In conclusion, vascular dementia affects the cognitive functions of an individual rendering them dependent. The disorder can be managed through pharmacological and psychological interventions which include counseling, behavioral change, and drug administration to reduce the symptoms and slow the impacts of the disease. However, these therapies are associated with the financial burden and side effects which challenge their clinical outcomes. Vascular Dementia Assignment Paper

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. “Neurocognitive Disorders”

Gabbard, G. O. (2014). Gabbard’s treatment of psychiatric disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publications. Chapter 66, “Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder

Happich, M., Kirson, N. Y., Desai, U., King, S., Birnbaum, H. G., Reed, C., … & Price, D. (2016). Excess costs associated with possible misdiagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease among patients with vascular dementia in a UK CPRD population. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 53(1), 171-183.

Koch, S., Kunz, T., Lykou, S., & Cruz, R. (2014). Effects of dance movement therapy and dance on health-related psychological outcomes: A meta-analysis. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 41(1), 46-64.

Orgeta, V., Qazi, A., Spector, A. E., & Orrell, M. (2014). Psychological treatments for depression and anxiety in dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1).

Sachdev, P. S., Blacker, D., Blazer, D. G., Ganguli, M., Jeste, D. V., Paulsen, J. S., & Petersen, R. C. (2014). Classifying neurocognitive disorders: the DSM-5 approach. Nature Reviews Neurology, 10(11), 634.

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Stahl, S. M. (2014). Prescriber’s Guide: Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Vascular Dementia Assignment Paper

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