Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Assignment

Type 2 diabetes is a medical condition that has received much attention owing to its non-curative nature. The available medical technologies can only offer management solutions while controlling the symptoms without opportunities for a cure. This implies that once diagnosed with the condition, the individual will maintain that disease status for the rest of his or her life (Lundy & Janes, 2016). The present paper acknowledges the difficulties in managing diabetes by discussing the ethical questions in diabetes management, genetic aspects of the condition as well as the health outcomes and cost implications, implications of evidence-based practice, and patient education. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Assignment

Discuss any ethical considerations for diabetes mellitus type 2
Type 2 diabetes mellitus raises some ethical concerns, particularly with regards to research and management. The first ethical concern is how to balance between primary prevention and technologically-intensive care for complications arising from the condition. This is in consideration of the fact that diabetics are an increasing population that place a burden on the limited care resources that include medical personnel and facilities. Given these resource limitations, the question becomes how to contain the social and economic costs by determining care priorities between offering primary prevention that reduces the number of new diabetics while reducing the number that is receiving care, or managing complications arising from the condition while ignoring prevention strategies. The issue is further complicated by motivational deficiencies, corruption and bureaucratic controls (Ellis, 2016). Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Assignment


The second ethical concern is that most diabetes research is market driven. As the number of diabetics increases, the medical industry identifies them as a lucrative market that can be exploited. Given the current social and economic philosophies, it is not surprising that research places less emphasis on the interests of the patient and greater emphasis on the market. The market-driven research deprives diabetics of cost-effective disease management modalities. For instance, medical research determined that human insulin produced better physiological results despite being expensive this justifying the halt in production of the bovine insulin that was cheaper but produced less favorable physiological results (Ellis, 2016).

The final ethical concern is that the diabetics recruited in the control group of experimental research studies are not assured of receiving the best proven therapeutic approaches. This is particularly true when placebo is used thus leaving the diabetic untreated. The Declaration of Helsinki clearly states that human participants in an experimental study recruited into the control group should be guaranteed the best-proven diagnosis and therapeutics. This guarantee does not hold in the current experimental set up when a placebo is used on diabetics thus creating a situation whereby they do not receive the best possible therapeutics (Ellis, 2016).

Compare how genetics can improve care and health outcomes while reducing cost to usual practices.
Genetics has the potential for improving the care and health outcomes for diabetes as a polygenic disorder while reducing costs. This occurs through genetic testing where counselors improve the test utilization by identifying the most cost-effective and appropriate tests. Through the testing, medical personnel can note the novel genetic markers that are strongly linked to the condition and other related traits. The test results would then act as the basis for personalized treatment that presents medication using genetic risk information particular to the patient to guide management that entails diagnosis and treatment. Besides the use of genetics in mapping care in terms of cost and effectiveness, it can also be used to facilitate diabetes prevention. This is in concession that other than metabolic status, body mass index and family history, genetics can act as an additional risk factor. In this case, the genetics test determines susceptibility by linking specific genes to disease incidence to present a risk profile. For that matter, the test would associate diabetes incidence with the presence or absence of particular genes thus creating a diabetes profile for the individual. The profile would then be used to determine how to proceed with disease prevention and development (Wessel, Gupta & De Groot, 2016). For instance, linking a gene activation to a set of environmental circumstances or even food thereby aiding the client in determining what to avoid in terms of causes as well as what to practice to improve disease resistance. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Assignment

Discuss the changes in approaches to care when new evidence warrants evaluation of other options for improving outcomes or decreasing adverse events.
Provision of medical care is, at least on principle, based on the best evidence from systematic research. In fact, an expanding array of evidence will typically warrant a change in practice from asking questions about whether a particular treatment approach is appropriate to questions of how practice can be improved through applying top-down approaches that interpret tangible evidence in the individual patient and local context. This is in recognition of the fact that secondary sources are offering a rich source of evidence to inform clinical practice decision, relying on the relevant and quality material to inform clinical decisions. It is important to note that the evidence must first be appraised and its veracity determined before it can be applied to a particular situation. In addition, the evidence must be available in a form that supports ease of use. In essence, once evidence is available to improve care outcomes or reduce adverse events, then the next step is to determine its veracity based on established scales before it can be applied. In essence, despite warranting changes, the new evidence must be easy to integrate with the existing care systems without warranting significant costs, be put in context by experts, and its content be based on available evidence. Also, ad hoc queries being allowed through flexibility, being relevant to the user population needs, and excellent usability (Ellis, 2016). In this respect, new evidence that warrants care changes should only be applied if it is usable for the particular population, not costly, adaptable, and verified.

Create a plan for how you might educate colleagues and/or patients on this genetic disorder diabetes type 2 (it is acquired not inherited).
Patient education for acquired type 2 diabetes would explain how a patient developed the condition and whether it is inherited from parents. In this case, the first point is to explain that unlike other genetic traits, diabetes incidence does not follow a simple inheritance pattern despite some individuals having a combination of gene sequences that increase the likelihood of the disease development. This would require an explanation on the cause of the condition while noting that genes are not a cause in isolation. Even with the presence or absence of gene combinations that cause the condition, there is no guarantee that an individual would develop the condition. As such genes are simply triggered and predispose the individual to develop the condition (Joel, 2013). An illustration would be presented in which a twin would only have a 75% chance of developing the condition if the other twin is diagnosed with the condition. The second point is to define the condition and distinguish it from type 1 diabetes to include its presentation, risk, prevention, and management. The third point is to explain the risk of developing the condition to include the position that diet and physical activity play in the disease development. The fourth point is to identify the public resources available to the client to include other publicly available sources of information such as websites, journals, and other publications. The final step of the education program is to offer the learners an opportunity to ask questions and seek clarification on vague or confusing points (Lundy & Janes, 2016). Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Assignment

In conclusion, it is evident that many issues arise in the management of diabetes. There are ethical issues involved as well as genetic aspects of the condition and related health outcomes and cost implications. In addition, evidence-based practice and patient education have been discussed regarding this disease which is not curable but which is managed throughout a patient’s life.


Ellis, P. (2016). Evidence-based practice in nursing (3rd ed.). London: Learning Matter/SAGE Publications Ltd.

Joel, L. A. (2013). Advanced practice nursing: essentials of role development (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.

Lundy, K. S. & Janes, S. (eds) (2016). Community health nursing: caring for the public’s health (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Wessel, J., Gupta, J. & de Groot, M. (2016). Factors motivating individuals to consider genetic testing for type 2 diabetes risk prediction. PLoS ONE, 11(1), e0147071. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147071

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Assignment

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