Compare evidence-based treatment plans for adults versus children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia
Analyze legal and ethical issues surrounding the forceful administration of medication to children diagnosed with schizophrenia Treatment Plans for Schizophrenia Paper
Analyze the role of the PMHNP in addressing issues related to the forceful administration of medication to children diagnosed with schizophrenia
To Prepare for this Assignment:
Review the Learning Resources concerning early-onset schizophrenia.
The Assignment (2 pages):
Compare at least two evidence-based treatment plans for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with evidence-based treatment plans for children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Explain the legal and ethical issues involved with forcing children diagnosed with schizophrenia to take medication for the disorder and how a PMHNP may address those issues.
Evidence-based treatment plans for adolescents and children versus adults diagnosed with schizophrenia
Early onset schizophrenia is a serious and incapacitating illness associated with substantial negative impacts on psychological, social and occupational life, weakened physical wellbeing and considerable indirect and indirect costs. According to Stafford et al (2015), in comparison to adult onsets schizophrenia, schizophrenia in adolescents and children might be more serious, with immense negative effects on psychological, social as well as cognitive development. Additionally, compared to adults, adolescents and children are highly likely to display adverse symptoms and to a lesser extent display systematized deliriums and illusions (Stafford et al, 2015).
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Atypical antipsychotics are the mainstay of treatment of schizophrenia in children and adolescents, while combination of psychotherapeutic intervention and antipsychotic treatment might be a more inclusive treatment strategy for adult schizophrenia. Stafford et al (2015) claim that evidence shows that even though typical antipsychotics lead to improvements in positive symptomatology, they prompt considerable extra pyramidal adverse effects, prolactin elevations, and tardive dyskinesia. Therefore, atypical antipsychotics have turned out to be the mainstay of treatment of early onset schizophrenia due to their probable lesser tendency to prompt extrapyramidal symptoms along with minimal threat of tardive dyskinesia (Stafford et al, 2015). Treatment Plans for Schizophrenia Paper
Adult literature supports individualized psychological and psychosocial treatments for adult schizophrenia. Psychosocial therapies, cognitive remediation and family intervention are can be combined with pharmacological interventions for adults with schizophrenia (Vyas & Gogtay, 2014). Stafford et al (2015) point that since studies have revealed that family interventions are effective in management of adult schizophrenia, this psychological intervention may also be used in adolescents and children.
Ethical and legal issues involved with forcing children diagnosed with schizophrenia to take medication
Whether it is admissible to offer treatment to patients without their consent is a central query in law and medical ethics. Sjostrand et al (2015) claim that respect for patient’s independence in decision making is at the core of medical ethics. This means that patients must not be manipulated or coerced into treatment and care if they have the capacity to make independent decisions on their treatment and care. Legislations on coerced treatment in mental illness require management on basis of the condition of the patient, necessity for treatment and dangerousness to self and to others (Sjostrand et al, 2015).
It is usually believed that forceful medication might be applied in psychiatry if the patient is believed to require treatment for a grave mental disorder and to be dangerous to themselves or to other people. According to Pelto-Piri et al (2016), there is an ethical and legal challenge when a child who have diagnosed with schizophrenia seems to require treatment but is actively refusing to take medication. Children regardless of age are entitled to take part in their healthcare. Forceful administration of medication is ethically justifiable if coercion is the only probable option for controlling schizophrenia in children in cases where other therapeutic interventions have proven ineffective (Pelto-Piri et al, 2016).
How a PHNHP may address legal and ethical issues involved with forceful administration of medication for children with schizophrenia
A PMHNP can address the legal and issues concerning forceful administration of medication to children diagnosed with schizophrenia engaging them in treatment plans. Mahone et al (2016). PMHNPs use bisopsychosocial approach of universal care, which involves educating the patient on how they can manage illnesses, along with spiritually supporting patients with schizophrenia. Through this approach, a psychiatric nurse practitioner can emphasize the implication of the perspective of the patient in his or her care and treatment decisions. PMHNPs also use shared decision-making approach to enable patients meaningfully and actively participate in their treatment by offering them available information and treatment options (Mahone et al, 2016). Treatment Plans for Schizophrenia Paper
Mahone, I., Maphis, C., & Snow, D. (2016). Effective Strategies for Nurses Empowering Clients with Schizophrenia: Medication Use as a Tool in Recovery. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 37(5): 372-379.
Pelto-Piri, V., Kjelin, L., Lindvall, C., & Engstrom. I. (2016). Justifications for coercive care in child and adolescent psychiatry, a content analysis of medical documentation in Sweden. BMC Health Services Research, 16: 66.
Sjostrand, M., Sandman, L., & Helgesson, G et al. (2015). Ethical deliberations about involuntary treatment: interviews with Swedish Psychiatrists. BMC Medical Ethics, 16:37.
Stafford, M., Mayo-Wilson, E., & Loucas, C et al. (2015). Efficacy and safety of Pharmacological and Psychological Interventions for the treatment of Psychosis and Schizophrenia in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLos One, 10(2): e0117166.
Vyas, N., & Gogtay, N. (2014). Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia: Recent Trends, Challenges and Future Considerations. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 3: 29.Treatment Plans for Schizophrenia Paper
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