Treatment Plans for Schizophrenia Paper

Children and adolescents with schizophrenia have more difficulty functioning in academic or work settings, and significant impairment usually persists into adulthood. They may have speech or language disorders and in some cases borderline intellectual functioning. These individuals are more likely to complete suicide attempts or die from other accidental causes. Schizophrenia is characterized by positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, and behavior disturbance. Negative symptoms include blunted affect and attention, apathy, and lack of motivation and social interest. Treatment Plans for Schizophrenia Paper

In this Assignment, you compare treatment plans for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with treatment plans for children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia. You also consider the legal and ethical issues involved in medicating children diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Learning Objectives
Students will:

Compare evidence-based treatment plans for adults versus children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia
Analyze legal and ethical issues surrounding the forceful administration of medication to children diagnosed with schizophrenia
Analyze the role of the PMHNP in addressing issues related to the forceful administration of medication to children diagnosed with schizophrenia
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Review the Learning Resources concerning early-onset schizophrenia.
The Assignment (2 pages):

QUESTION:

Compare at least two evidence-based treatment plans for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia with evidence-based treatment plans for children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Explain the legal and ethical issues involved with forcing children diagnosed with schizophrenia to take medication for the disorder and how a PMHNP may address those issues.
Introduction

Schizophrenia is a mental ailments that affects persons of all age groups. In fact, its characterization and symptoms presentation is similar for age groups. Still, there are dissimilarities in the management of the condition with consideration on age. That is because each treatment plan targets specific aspects of the condition (Graham, 2013). The present paper discusses the treatment plan dissimilarities noted for schizophrenia among children, adolescents and adults, along with the ethical and legal implications of forced treatment. Treatment Plans for Schizophrenia Paper

Discussion

Part 1.

Schizophrenia treatment for children and adults is comparable since it is considered a lifelong endeavor that continues even after the symptoms have been placed under control. In the two groups, the treatment options include medication, psychotherapy, life-skills training and hospitalization. Medication presents antipsychotics that manage lack of emotion, loss of motivation, hallucinations and delusions for both children and adults with the only difference being the dosage (Eaton, 2012; Mayo Clinic, 2018). Still, there are some medication that are presented based on age to include paliperidone and perphenazine approved for persons older than 11 years, and ariprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, chlorpromazine, and risperidone approved for persons older than 12 years. Haloperidol is approved for persons older than 2 years. Another similarity is that psychotherapy for the two groups can either take the form of individual therapy or family therapy. In addition, the two groups can be hospitalized during crisis periods or when the patient presents severe symptoms. The hospitalization would focus on controlling the symptoms while ensuring the patient’s safety along with offering proper hygiene, sleep and nutrition (Eaton, 2012; Mayo Clinic, 2018).

Still, there are notable differences between the treatments provided for the two groups. In the case of children and adolescents, treatment is facilitated by a child psychiatrist who facilitates a team management approach. The team is comprised of a case manager who coordinates care, a pharmacist, family members, social workers, and psychiatric nurse. On the other hand, adult patients receiving psychotherapy require the intervention of a psychiatrist with the family engagement not mandatory (Welfel, 2013). Another difference is noted in the life-skills training provided for the two groups. Children receive academic and social skills training to address their school and relationship problems thereby allowing them to independently complete daily tasks that include dressing and bathing. Adolescents would require supported employment and vocational rehabilitation in addition to the academic and social skills training. The training would help them to prepare for, find and hold gainful employment or jobs. Adults would receiving life skills training similar to what adolescents receive since they also need jobs to help them earn money and make a living (Graham, 2013). In this respect, schizophrenia treatment for children and adolescents on one hand and adults on the other hand share similarities and differences. Treatment Plans for Schizophrenia Paper

Part 2.

Forcing children diagnoses with schizophrenia to take medication presents some ethical and legal issues, particularly with regards to autonomy. Children have the right to make decisions or at least contribute to the decision concerning care. For the most part, the decision should involve a three-sided consultation involving the parent, physician and child. Still, there are there are cases when the child presents an opinion contrary to what the parents and physician advice. In such cases, it would be prudent to first convince the child that the medication is necessary and failing to provide treatment would only allow the situation to deteriorate further. If it is not possible to convince the child that the medication is necessary, then an alternative viable treatment approach should be presented and discussed. That is because although the child is a minor who is legally presented by the parent with no legal backlash for the decision to force medication, there are ethical implications regarding autonomy for forcing the child to take medication (Parsapoor et al., 2014). In this respect, a PMHNP should address the issue by first trying to convince the child that the treatment is necessary before considering other viable alternative.

Conclusion

One must accept that schizophrenia treatment plan for children, adolescents and adults share some similarities to include adopting a lifelong approach and offering medication, psychotherapy, life-skills training and hospitalization. In addition, one must accept that there are notable differences in the treatment plans for the two groups since children and adolescents will require a child psychiatrist along with case manager, pharmacist, family members, social workers, and psychiatric nurse. Adults would similarly require the intervention of a psychiatrist although family engagement is not mandatory. Also, life-skills training entail children receiving academic and social skills training while adults receive supported employment and vocational rehabilitation in addition to the academic and social skills training. It is also noted that issues of forced medication among children have legal and ethical implications, and should be addressed by first trying to convince the child that the treatment is necessary before considering other viable alternative. Treatment Plans for Schizophrenia Paper

References

Eaton, W. (2012). Public mental health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Graham, G. (2013). The disordered mind: An introduction to philosophy of mind and mental illness (2nd ed). London: Routledge.

Mayo Clinic (2018). Childhood schizophrenia. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/childhood-schizophrenia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354489

Parsapoor, A., Parsapoor, M., Rezaei, N. & Asghari, F. (2014). Autonomy of children and adolescents in consent to treatment: ethical, jurisprudential and legal considerations. Iran Journal of Pediatrics, 24(3), 241-248.

Welfel, E. (2013). Ethics in counseling & psychotherapy (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Treatment Plans for Schizophrenia Paper

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