Treatment of Neurocognitive Disorders

Iaboni & Rapoport (2017) define neurocognitive disorders refer to a state where mental function is decreased to due to an underlying disease as compared to a psychiatric illness and the most common type is Alzheimer’s disease. Neurocognitive disorders pose huge social, financial and physical burdens to individual patients, families and friends. In most patients, neurocognitive disorders increase severity of independence and activities of daily life. Treatment modalities include both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches which ensure that mental and health status are maintained (Piersol, et al., 2017). Despite the fact that drugs prescribed are highly dependent on the duration and severity of symptoms, it also depends on the symptoms that a client presents with. Treatment of Neurocognitive Disorders

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Generally, the most prescribed pharmacological drugs include: antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, beta blockers, benzodiazepines and NMDA receptor antagonists. For instance, pharmacological drugs such as exelon, aricept and razadyne are prescribed to boost the neurotransmitter levels (Nathan & Gorman, 2015). Memantine is prescribed to regulate the activity levels of glutamate which is a neurotransmitter that boosts learning and memory.

With reference to non-pharmacological agents, occupational therapy is the most preferred approach to management. It lays emphasis on teaching patients some of the strategies that are highly effective in minimizing the effect of brain impairment on daily life. Therefore, rather than focusing on disabilities, occupational therapy tends to focus on abilities of an individual ( Nathan & Gorman, 2015). The most commonly used is CBT which has proven to be highly effective in teaching clients some of the strategies that are essential for the management of the effects caused by impairment with the respective diminished capacity. As suggested by Jensen & Padilla (2017), environmental modification to eliminate barriers and clusters that are likely to cause falls or impair physical functioning is also applied in clinical and home settings. As noted by Werner & Coveñas (2015), the decisions regarding treatment lie solely on the hands of either the designated decision maker of a patient or the patient and require maximum collaboration with other medical providers.

References

Iaboni, A., & Rapoport, M. J. (2017). Detecting and Managing Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Dementia: What Psychiatrists Need to Know and Why. Treatment of Neurocognitive Disorders

Jensen, L., & Padilla, R. (2017). Effectiveness of environment-based interventions that address behavior, perception, and falls in people with Alzheimer’s disease and related major neurocognitive disorders: a systematic review. American journal of occupational therapy, 71(5), 7105180030p1-7105180030p10.

Nathan, P. E., & Gorman, J. M. (Eds.). (2015). A guide to treatments that work. Oxford University Press.

Piersol, C. V., Canton, K., Connor, S. E., Giller, I., Lipman, S., & Sager, S. (2017). Effectiveness of interventions for caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s disease and related major neurocognitive disorders: A systematic review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(5), 7105180020p1-7105180020p10.

Werner, F. M., & Coveñas, R. (2015). New developments in the management of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: potential use of cariprazine. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 11, 1657.

Treatment of Neurocognitive Disorders

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