Instruments to that I will use
The objective of management of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is to prolong life expectancy and also to make sure that patients have a long-term quality of life, described by physical, social and emotional well-being. Therefore evaluation of health-related quality of life is significant in the management of patients with heart diseases. I will use disease-specific and generic instruments in measuring health-related quality of life (HLQL) in African American males with congestive heart failure. According to Clays et al (2015), generic instruments can be applied across a variety of target groups, permits comparisons between groups and comparisons between groups and the general populations Transitional Care for Patients with CHF.
Examples of generic instruments are 15 dimensions instrument, quality of well-being scale, health utility index and EuroQol instrument. Disease-specific tools are only applicable in precise disease groups and do not permit contrast with other disease sets and samples from general population. Clays et al (2016) argue that utility score calculation, on basis of response to queries is impossible with disease-specific tools but is a significant function of majority of generic instruments. HeartQoL, Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire and Seattle Angina questionnaire are examples of disease-specific instruments.
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Disease-specific instruments and generic instruments are valid and reliable because they allows a researcher to make comparisons of health-related quality of life of CHF patients with other patient populaces and also with samples individuals with identical sex distribution and age within the general population.(Clays et al, 2016).
Data collection methods
I will use qualitative data collection methods, such as interviews, focus groups and observations. … qualitative research methods permit researchers to have a better understanding of the experiences of carers and patients, permits one to explore the way people make decisions and offers a in depth discernment into the way interventions may change care (Barrett & Twycross, 2018). I will use semi-structured interviews to collect data. During the face to face interviews. All participants will be required to offer informed consent and the aim of the study will be explained to them. The interviews will be audiotaped with permission of the participants and the interviews will last for thirty minutes Transitional Care for Patients with CHF.
Integrative memos and diagrams will also be written all through the project to give a better illumination of analyzing data. Demographic information, including gender, age, socioeconomic and marital status information as well as clinical information, including functional status, CHF risk factors and health status from the time the participants were diagnosed with CHF will be collected. In-depth interviews will be conduct to prompt extended narrative of patient’s illness journey, the manners in which they cope with heart failure, their experiences with health management as well as the function of informal caregivers and professionals in sustaining the illness.
Other participants, such as clinicians and caregivers involved in taking care of CHF patients will also be interviewed. The caregivers and clinicians will be given information on the study and be required to give an informed consent to participate in the interview. I will use purposive sampling to make sure that views of these participant’s from primary care will be incorporated. Clinicians and caregivers will also be required to discuss data that will emerge from the interviews with patients and to define, in their view what engagement of patient implies in healthcare and the factors that might promote or impede realization.
Data analysis plan
Data analysis will independently be conducted and occur alongside collection of data to permit a progressive focus of interviews and examination of tentative suppositions. Integral transcripts will be analyzed in accordance with the process of ground theory analysis. In ground theory, three sequential coding phases are involved. The first step is the open coding, where concepts that fit the collected data are preliminarily identified (Strauss & Corbin, 2015).
The next analysis phase is axial coding where codes are progressively aggregated and condensed into broader groups. The last phase of analysis is selective coding which connections amid group of data is abstracted and interpretively detected so as to the primary category (Strauss & Corbin, 2015). The core category is a fundamental concept that will articulate the entire process being investigated. Memos and diagrams which were written alongside the data collected will also analyzed in accordance to the principles of ground theory Transitional Care for Patients with CHF.
The meaning of the output of statistical tests will help answer and way it relates to PICOT/ clinical problem.
Statistical tests will help in understanding the way patients, clinicians and caregivers experience the illness and the interventions they use in managing the disease. The tests will generate context-based and in-depth knowhow from the unique perspectives of participants and inform the creation of context-based and tailored interventions, which might subsequently result to more sustainable and successful programmes from management of African American males with CHF in primary care clinics. The key research question is the tools need to effectively manage CHF among African American males in primary care clinics to enhance the overall outcome.
Data collection, entailing interviews of healthcare professionals, caregivers and patients, inscription of memons and the process of data analysis, entailing coding will be focused on answering this PICOT question. According to Vedel and Khanassov (2015), the numerous visits to emergency departments and hospital readmissions is as a result of inadequate knowledge on the most effective treatment plan, unawareness of exacerbation of congestive heart failure symptoms, failure to adhere to medical therapy and erratic follow-up.
Clays, E, Smedt, D., & Bacqueer, D. (2016).Measuring health-related quality of life in cardiac patients. European Heart Journal-Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, 2(1): 149-150.
Barrett, D., & Twycross, A. (2018). Data collection in qualitative research. Evidence Based Nursing, 21(3): 63-64.
Strauss, J., & Corbin, J. (2015). Basics of qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. New York: SAGE.
Vedel, I, & Khanassov, V. (2015). Transitional Care for Patients with Congestive Heart Failure: A systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Annals of Family Medicine, 13(6): 562-571 Transitional Care for Patients with CHF
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