PUB 550 – Hypothesis Testing Essay Example

Hypothesis testing

What test statistic did the researchers use? What did the authors set as the significance level of the test statistic?

The test statistic used was percentage points and confidence interval. In this case, the percentages are calculated for the population sample then confidence interval used to determine how much latitude there is in the range of the calculated percentage if repeated samples were to be taken from the same population. The statistics are presented as best estimates of the population proportions with 5% error PUB 550 – Hypothesis Testing Essay Example. That means that all predictions (figures presented) are wrong for 5% of the samples drawn from the populations. Although the significance level has not been explicitly mentioned in the article, it is implied as 0.05. That is because there is a 5% risk of making the wrong conclusion and rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true (Jiwani et al., 2019).

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What was the null hypothesis? What was the alternative hypothesis? Were these clearly stated in the article, or did you have to extrapolate based on the background in the article?

The article does not explicitly mention the research hypothesis. However, it can be inferred that the null hypothesis is: obesity prevalence and burden parallels socioeconomic status among Latin American and Caribbean populations. As such, the alternative hypothesis would be: obesity prevalence and burden does not parallel socioeconomic status among Latin American and Caribbean populations. In this respect, the null and alternative hypotheses were not clearly stated and had to be extrapolated based on the background information presented in the article (Jiwani et al., 2019).

Discuss potential bias that may have resulted from the study design and data collection that could have affected the validity of the test. PUB 550 – Hypothesis Testing Essay Example.

The research applied a cross-sectional study design whereby the researcher measured the outcomes in the study participants at the same time. In fact, it applies an analytical approach that investigates the association between obesity as a health outcome and socioeconomic status as a putative risk factor. Both the health outcome (obesity) and risk factor (socioeconomic status) were measured simultaneously (Jiwani et al., 2019). The study design prevents five potential biases that could have affected the validity of the test. The first potential bias is selection bias whereby the characteristics of the study participants systematically differ from the characteristics of other eligible members of the population who were not included as part of the study sample. The second potential bias is the confounding bias that concerns the relationship between the risk factor and health outcome. The two are measured simultaneously and it is difficult to determine whether the health outcome followed or proceeded the risk factor. Put simply, does being poor predispose an individual to develop obesity or does having obesity predispose an individual to being poor owing to the associated health care costs. The confounding bias confuses the relationship between the health outcome and risk factor so that the researcher makes incorrect associations. The third bias is non-response bias when there is a significant difference between those who did not respond and those who responded. This bias is caused by certain individuals being less inclined to offer information, inability to reach the targeted participants, complacency, poorly constructed questions, and refusal to participate. The fourth bias is influence from prior information. Given that information on the health outcome and risk factor are recorded simultaneously, prior knowledge of the medical condition might influence the ascertainment of the health outcome. The final bias is detection and recall bias that influences the researchers to make assumptions about the risk factor and health outcome resulting in the participant being incorrectly classified (Mackey & Gass, 2015).

Summarize the story told by the data used in this study as it applies to the larger population. Comment on whether the authors used the interpretation approach discussed in the textbook, including (a) summarize why the study was done, (b) discuss the factual results, (c) explain what the results mean, and (d) make suggestions for future research.

The study explores the associated between socioeconomic status and obesity burden among Latin American and Caribbean populations using a cross sectional design approach PUB 550 – Hypothesis Testing Essay Example. It acknowledges that the burden of obesity differs across populations based on socioeconomic status and seeks to characterize the prevalence of obesity incidences among adult populations in Latin America and the Caribbean overtime with a focus on obesity burden and socioeconomic measures. Based on a survey conducted between 1998 and 2017 in 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, the study generated outcomes for obesity by wealth, education and residence area. The study recruited 479,809 participants with the results showing that obesity prevalence increased over time. Evaluations of the results by region determined that the highest prevalence was among women in Mexico and lowest prevalence was among women in Haiti. Urban residents were noted to have larger disease burden when compared to their rural counterparts with differences ranging from 0.1 percentage point in Paraguay to 15.8 percentage point in Peru. The trend analysis conducted on the collected data suggested shifting obesity burden across socioeconomic groups and different gender patterns. The research study concludes that there is an increase in obesity prevalence in Latin Americas and the Caribbean regions, and the prevalence is paralleled with shifting burden and unequal distribution across socioeconomic groups. The implication is that there is a high likelihood of obesity occurring among low socioeconomic groups, and prevention strategies targeting low socioeconomic groups would be a more effective intervention strategy (Jiwani et al., 2019) PUB 550 – Hypothesis Testing Essay Example.

While the results are useful in informing on the research topic, the biases inherent in the research design applied place the results into question. As such, there is a need for a study that compares the results of interventions conducted among the different socioeconomic groups to determine if this would be an effective intervention strategy.

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References

Jiwani, S., Carrilo-Larco, R., Hernández-Vásquez, A., Barrientos-Gutiérrez, T., Basto-Abreu, A., Gutierrez, L. … & Miranda, J. (2019). The shift of obesity burden by socioeconomic status between 1998 and 2017 in Latin America and the Caribbean: a cross-sectional series study. The Lancet, 7(12), e1644-e1654. DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30421-8

Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2015). Second language research: methodology and design. London: Routledge.

Instruction on this Paper

Hypothesis Testing

The purpose of this assignment is to evaluate the steps of hypothesis testing.

Hypothesis testing is a central component in understanding and interpreting public health research. Research questions are applied through a testable hypothesis established before the data is collected. It provides the rationale for the study and guides the researcher in what tests to use and how to interpret the results PUB 550 – Hypothesis Testing Essay Example.

Identify a peer-reviewed article from one of the data sources available on the “Data Resource Document.” You will need to visit the various websites listed on the document to search for a research article that is of interest to you. Include the link to the selected article in a 750-1,000 word summary that address the following as it relates to the article.

What test statistic did the researchers use? What did the authors set as the significance level of the test statistic?

What was the null hypothesis? What was the alternative hypothesis? Were these clearly stated in the article, or did you have to extrapolate based on the background in the article?

Discuss potential bias that may have resulted from the study design and data collection that could have affected the validity of the test. PUB 550 – Hypothesis Testing Essay Example.

Summarize the story told by the data used in this study as it applies to the larger population

Comment on whether the authors used the interpretation approach discussed in the textbook, including (a) summarize why the study was done, (b) discuss the factual results, (c) explain what the results mean, and (d) make suggestions for future research.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance PUB 550 – Hypothesis Testing Essay Example

Data Resource Document

CDC WONDER
Explore the CDC WONDER website.

https://wonder.cdc.gov/

Gapminder
Explore the Gapminder website.

Home

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
Explore the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, located on the CDC website.

https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/index.html

PovcalNet
Explore the PovcalNet: An Online Analysis Tool for Global Poverty Monitoring page of The World Bank website.

http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/home.aspx

Demographic and Health Survey Data
Explore the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data website.

http://dhsprogram.com/data/

Alcohol-Related Disease Impact Application
Explore the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact Application (ARDI) page of the CDC website.

https://nccd.cdc.gov/DPH_ARDI/default/default.aspx

Public Health Partners
Explore the Health Data Tools and Statistics page of the Public Health Partners website. This site provides many public health data sources.

https://phpartners.org/health_stats.html

National Health Interview Survey
Explore the National Health Interview Survey page of the CDC website. Review the documents. PUB 550 – Hypothesis Testing Essay Example

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/index.htm

Global School-Based Student Health Survey
Explore the purpose and methodology of the international Global School-Based Student Health Survey, located on the World Health Organization (WHO) website.

http://www.who.int/chp/gshs/en/

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System
Explore the methods, data, and documentation of the Youth Risk Surveillance System, located on the CDC website.

https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/ PUB 550 – Hypothesis Testing Essay Example

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