Nursing seminar Research Discussion Paper

Question 1.

One of the more important principles for selecting learning activities is the one that mentions that teaching can only be effective if it involves the acquisition of pertinent knowledge about learning with the knowledge used to learning materials in terms of teaching approach and course design. In this case, when educators engage learners, they do not just present them with course content, but they also teach the learners the content. That is because each student is unique with differentiating characteristics evident within a classroom environment. For instance, a learner’s background in terms of generation and culture can influence world outlook. Similarly, disciplinary background can influence conduct while prior knowledge (whether inaccurate or accurate) can influence the reception of new concepts (Billings & Halstead, 2016). Although educators cannot accurately measure the characteristics that influence the learning capacity, gather information on the more relevant characteristics can in course planning to inform design (such as format, examples, pacing, and objectives), explain the learning difficulties students face (such as existing misconceptions), and guide how they adapt to instructions (such as identifying the need for remedial practice). Overall, this principle creates a multidirectional link between instructional activities, assessments and learning objectives to ensure that relevant knowledge is disseminated (Billings & Halstead, 2016). Nursing seminar Research Discussion Paper

Question 2.

The three domains of learning simply present the different aspects of learning that are important in nursing education. Firstly, the cognitive domain is concerned with thinking to include remembering what has been taught, comprehending important concepts, applying the acquired knowledge, analyzing the relationship between concepts, evaluating how the concepts are applied, and creating new understandings of the acquired concepts. Secondly, the affective domain that is concerned with feelings and emotions to include sensitively receiving the stimuli (such as attention, willingness and awareness), responding to either conform or contribute to the acquired knowledge, valuing that justifies, believes and respects the acquired information, organization that clarifies, systematizes and integrates the information, and characterization that internalizes and judges the information (Bastable, 2018). Finally, the psychomotor domain is concerned with discrete interpretive movement, reflection action and physical function. It is concerned with the acquired information being encoded physically through movements that entail the use of fine and gross muscles. The muscle movement is intended to interpret and express the information resulting in reflex, autonomic and natural response. The review of the three learning domains makes it clear that brain activities concerned with learning and retaining information achieve the best results if physical movements are used to enhance memory and recall to accelerate long-term memory (Bastable, 2018). Nursing seminar Research Discussion Paper

Question 3.

Murray (2015) is a 19-page journal article that presents the results of a research to explore how critical thinking activities and assignments can be used to enhance the ethical awareness and sense of civic responsibility for learners. By applying ‘other-centered theory of ethics’, ‘paradox of substance’, and ‘rhetoric of disruption’, the author is able to evaluate the notion of critical thinking, particularly the position that it plays in influencing learners to question moral assumptions while interrogating their moral identity. It concludes that diversity can only be fully appreciated when learning applies critical thinking and moves beyond moral subjectivity. The article is useful in showing that critical thinking can destabilize inherent subjectivity by increasing the learners’ ethical awareness. In fact, the article is useful in explaining how learners can develop civic responsibility and ethical awareness, allowing them to develop independent thought processes that allow them to make the best decisions in different scenarios instead of simply being exposed to divergent cultures and alternative perspectives that would only allow them to address only the concepts that they learn. In this respect, the article shows that critical thinking is an effective learning approach that allows students to move beyond subjective approaches to problem-solving thereby making it an effective education tool.

Question 4.

VARK is an assessment tool that determines the best learning approach for a student. It suggests that learning can only occur through four domains in the form of visual, auditory, reading/writing, and kinesthetic domains. The assessment tool functions on the premise that learning is most effective when the teaching approaches match the learner’s strengths and preferences. It is able to determine a student’s preferred learning approach (Cherry, 2018). Having conducted a self- assessment using VARK, my scores were 3 for the visual domain, 6 for the aural domain, 2 for the reading/writing domain, and 5 for the kinesthetic domain. This results indicate that I am more inclined towards aural and kinesthetic learning, and less inclined towards visual and reading/writing learning. As an aural learner, I would perform best when teaching occurs through songs that help me to remember information. Also, podcasts and lecture recordings, and reading out loud would allow me to retain the most information. As a kinesthetic learner, I would perform best when teachers is accompanied by practice and application. On the other hand, I would retain less information if teaching occurs through handouts and overheads, presentations, reading, class notes, textbooks, and visual information (Cherry, 2018). Nursing seminar Research Discussion Paper


Bastable, S. (2018). Nurse as educator: principles of teaching and learning for nursing practice (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Billings, D. & Halstead, J. (2016). Teaching in nursing: a guide for faculty (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Cherry, K. (2018). Overview of VARK learning styles. Retrieved from

Murray, J. (2015). Critical thinking activities and the enhancement of ethical awareness: an application of a ‘rhetoric of disruption’ to the undergraduate general education classroom. Open Review of Educational Research, 2(1), 240-258. doi: 10.1080/23265507.2015.1084478


Nursing seminar Research Discussion Paper

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