Module 1: Comprehensive Health History

What’s Happening in This Module?
This course is composed of four (4) separate modules. Each module consists of an overarching topic in which each week within the module includes specific subtopics for learning. As you work through each module, you will have an opportunity to draw upon the knowledge you gain in various Digital Clinical Experiences (DCE) and lab assignment components that will be due throughout each of the modules.

Module 1: Comprehensive Health History is a 1-week module, Week 1 of the course, in which you will examine how social determinants of health such as age, gender, ethnicity, and environmental situations impact the health and risk assessment of the patients you serve. You will also consider how social determinants of health influence your interview and communication techniques as you work in partnership with a patient to gather data to build an accurate health history.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1–7, Week 1
Discussion: Building a Comprehensive Health History Post by Day 3 of Week 1, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 1.
What’s Coming Up in Module 2: Looking Ahead Review the “Looking Ahead” section for this week. You are encouraged to further review the requirements for the Shadow Health registration process for your digital clinical experiences.
Go to the Week’s Content
Week 1: Building a Comprehensive Health History
According to a 2011 Gallup poll, nurses are ranked as the most trusted professionals in the United States. One of the most admired nursing skills is the ability to put patients at ease. When patients enter into a healthcare setting, they are often apprehensive about sharing personal health information. Caring nurses can alleviate the hesitance of patients and encourage them to be forthcoming with this information.

The initial health history interview can be an excellent opportunity to develop supportive relationships between patients and nurses. Nurses may employ a variety of communication skills and interview techniques to foster strong bonds with patients and to effectively facilitate the diagnostic process. In conducting interviews, advanced practice nurses must also take into account a range of patient-specific factors that may impact the questions they ask, how they ask those questions, and their complete assessment of the patient’s health.

This week, you will consider how social determinants of health such as age, gender, ethnicity, and environmental situation impact the health and risk assessment of the patients you serve. You will also consider how social determinants of health influence your interview and communication techniques as you work in partnership with a patient to gather data to build an accurate health history.

Learning Objectives
Students will:

Analyze communication techniques used to obtain patients’ health histories based upon social determinants of health
Analyze health-related risk
Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to patient interviewing, diagnostic reasoning, and recording patient information
Learning Resources
Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)
Required Media (click to expand/reduce)
Discussion: Building a Health History
Effective communication is vital to constructing an accurate and detailed patient history. A patient’s health or illness is influenced by many factors, including age, gender, ethnicity, and environmental setting. As an advanced practice nurse, you must be aware of these factors and tailor your communication techniques accordingly. Doing so will not only help you establish rapport with your patients, but it will also enable you to more effectively gather the information needed to assess your patients’ health risks.

For this Discussion, you will take on the role of a clinician who is building a health history for a particular new patient assigned by your Instructor.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Caiaimage

To prepare:

With the information presented in Chapter 1 of Ball et al. in mind, consider the following:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned a new patient profile by your Instructor for this Discussion. Note: Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your new patient profile assignment.
How would your communication and interview techniques for building a health history differ with each patient?
How might you target your questions for building a health history based on the patient’s social determinants of health?
What risk assessment instruments would be appropriate to use with each patient, or what questions would you ask each patient to assess his or her health risks?
Identify any potential health-related risks based upon the patient’s age, gender, ethnicity, or environmental setting that should be taken into consideration.
Select one of the risk assessment instruments presented in Chapter 1 or Chapter 5 of the Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination text, or another tool with which you are familiar, related to your selected patient.
Develop at least five targeted questions you would ask your selected patient to assess his or her health risks and begin building a health history.
By Day 3 of Week 1
Post a summary of the interview and a description of the communication techniques you would use with your assigned patient. Explain why you would use these techniques. Identify the risk assessment instrument you selected, and justify why it would be applicable to the selected patient. Provide at least five targeted questions you would ask the patient.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 1
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days who selected a different patient than you, using one or more of the following approaches:

Share additional interview and communication techniques that could be effective with your colleague’s selected patient.
Suggest additional health-related risks that might be considered.
Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
Submission and Grading Information
Grading Criteria
To access your rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1
To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 1 Discussion

What’s Coming Up in Module 2?

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

In Module 2, you explore the impact of functional assessments, diversity, and sensitivity in conducting health assessments. You also examine various assessment tools and diagnostic tests used to gather information about patients’ conditions and examine their validity, reliability, and impact in conducting health assessments.

Next week, you will specifically examine functional assessments as they relate to diversity and sensitivity

Registration for Shadow Health
Throughout this course, you will participate in digital clinical experiences using the online simulation tool Shadow Health. The Shadow Health digital clinical experience provides a dynamic, immersive experience designed to improve nursing skills and clinical reasoning through the examination of digital standardized patients. Using Shadow Health you will participate in health histories, focused exams, and a comprehensive assessment.

There will be four Shadow Health assessment components that you will need to complete in Module’s 2 and 3:

Health History Assessment (Week 3 & 4)
Focused Exam: Cough (Week 5) for a pediatric patient presenting with cough
Focused Exam: Chest Pain (Week 7) for an adult patient presenting with chest pain
Comprehensive (Head-to-Toe) Physical Assessment (Week 9)
Before you can participate in these simulations, you will need to register for a Shadow Health account. To do this:

Go to the Walden Bookstore and purchase access to Shadow Health and the required texts.
Once Shadow Health has been purchased, an access code will be emailed to you from the bookstore.
Review this video explaining how to register in Shadow Health: https://vimeo.com/275921826/c12d50ee6e
Use the Shadow Health link located in the navigation menu on the left in the Blackboard course.
Follow the prompts to register in Shadow Health. You will need the access code provided from the bookstore to register. Once registered, Shadow Health should always be accessed via the link in Blackboard.
Use only Google Chrome when accessing Shadow Health and make sure all other programs are turned off on your computer. Other browsers do not work well and will not allow the Shadow Health speech to text function to work.
Once registered, complete the Shadow Health Orientation in the Shadow Health website/program and review the videos designed to assist with navigating and completing assignments.
Read the Shadow Health Nursing Documentation Tutorial located in the Week 1 Learning Resources.
Note: As nurses you typically use the word assessment to mean completing the physical exam. However, in the SOAP Note format, assessment means diagnosis so start getting in the habit of calling the physical exam exactly that.

Week 2 Case Studies
In Week 2, your Instructor will assign you a case study related to your Discussion by Day 1 of the week. Please make sure to review the “Course Announcements” area of the course to verify your assigned case study. Please plan ahead to ensure you have time to review your case study and your Learning Resources so that you can complete your Discussions and Assignments on time.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

Next Module
To go to the next module:

Module 2

Module 2: Functional Assessments and Assessment Tools

Accessible player
–Downloads–
What’s Happening in This Module?
Module 2: Functional Assessments and Assessment Tools is a 2-week module, Weeks 2 and 3. In this module, you consider the impact of functional assessments, diversity, and sensitivity in conducting health assessments. You also explore various assessment tools and diagnostic tests that are used to gather information about patients’ conditions and examine the validity and reliability of these tests and tools. Finally, you examine assessment techniques, health risks and concerns, and recommendations for care related to patient growth, weight, and nutrition.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources. Days 1–7, Weeks 2 and 3
Discussion: Diversity and Health Assessments Post by Day 3 of Week 2, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 2.
Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Submit your Case Study Assignment by Day 6 of Week 3.
DCE: Health History Assessment You are encouraged to work on your DCE every week. However, this Assessment is not due until Day 7 of Week 4.
Go to the Module’s Content
Week 2: Functional Assessments and Cultural and Diversity Awareness in Health Assessment
Diversity is not about how we differ. Diversity is about embracing one another’s uniqueness.

—Ola Joseph

Countless assessments can be conducted on patients, but they may not be useful. In order to ensure that health assessments result in the necessary care, health assessments should take into account the impact of factors such as cultures and developmental circumstances.

Learning Objectives
Students will:

Analyze diversity considerations in health assessments
Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to examination techniques, functional assessments, and cultural and diversity awareness in health assessment
Learning Resources
Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)
Required Media (click to expand/reduce)
Discussion: Diversity and Health Assessments
May 2012, Alice Randall wrote an article for The New York Times on the cultural factors that encouraged black women to maintain a weight above what is considered healthy. Randall explained—from her observations and her personal experience as a black woman—that many African-American communities and cultures consider women who are overweight to be more beautiful and desirable than women at a healthier weight. As she put it, “Many black women are fat because we want to be” (Randall, 2012).

Photo Credit: Getty Images

Randall’s statements sparked a great deal of controversy and debate; however, they emphasize an underlying reality in the healthcare field: different populations, cultures, and groups have diverse beliefs and practices that impact their health. Nurses and healthcare professionals should be aware of this reality and adapt their health assessment techniques and recommendations to accommodate diversity.

In this Discussion, you will consider different socioeconomic, spiritual, lifestyle, and other cultural factors that should be taken into considerations when building a health history for patients with diverse backgrounds. Your Instructor will assign a case study to you for this Discussion.

To prepare:

Reflect on your experiences as a nurse and on the information provided in this week’s Learning Resources on diversity issues in health assessments.
By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned a case study by your Instructor. Note: Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your case study assignment.
Reflect on the specific socioeconomic, spiritual, lifestyle, and other cultural factors related to the health of the patient assigned to you.
Consider how you would build a health history for the patient. What questions would you ask, and how would you frame them to be sensitive to the patient’s background, lifestyle, and culture? Develop five targeted questions you would ask the patient to build his or her health history and to assess his or her health risks.
Think about the challenges associated with communicating with patients from a variety of specific populations. What strategies can you as a nurse employ to be sensitive to different cultural factors while gathering the pertinent information?
By Day 3 of Week 2
Post an explanation of the specific socioeconomic, spiritual, lifestyle, and other cultural factors associated with the patient you were assigned. Explain the issues that you would need to be sensitive to when interacting with the patient, and why. Provide at least five targeted questions you would ask the patient to build his or her health history and to assess his or her health risks.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 2
Respond on or before Day 6 on 2 different days to at least two of your colleagues who were assigned a different patient than you. Critique your colleague’s targeted questions, and explain how the patient might interpret these questions. Explain whether any of the questions would apply to your patient, and why.

Submission and Grading Information
Grading Criteria
To access your rubric:

Week 2 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 2 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 2
To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 2 Discussion

What’s Coming Up in Week 3?

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

Next week, you examine assessment techniques, health risks and concerns, and recommendations for care related to patient growth, weight, and nutrition. You will also begin your first DCE: Health History Assessment which will be due in Week 4. Plan your time accordingly.

Overview of Digital Clinical Experiences (DCE) and Lab Components
Throughout this course, you are required to not only complete your standard course assignments and discussions, but you will also complete DCE and Lab Components that are either structured as optional or required assignment submissions. Please take the time to review your DCEand Lab Components for this course that are required submissions. See the table below and the attached table for specific DCE and Lab Components for the course.

Note: Each Shadow Health Assessment may be attempted and reopened as many times as necessary prior to the due date to achieve a total score of 80% or better, but you must take all attempts by the Day 7 deadline. You must pass BOTH the Health History and Comprehensive (head-to-toe) Physical Exam of at least a total score of 80% in order to pass the course.

Week Digital Clinical Experiences Lab Components
Module 1: Comprehensive Health History
Week 1: Building a Comprehensive Health History
Module 2: Functional Assessments and Assessment Tools
Week 2: Functional Assessments and Cultural and Diversity Awareness in Health Assessment
Week 3: Assessment Tools, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurement, and Nutrition in Adults and Children DCE: Health History Assessment (assigned in Week 3, due in Week 4) Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children
Module 3: Approach to System Focused Advanced Health Assessments
Week 4: Assessment of the Skin, Hair, and Nails DCE: Health History Assessment Lab Assignment: Differential Diagnosis for Skin Conditions (SOAP Note for differential diagnosis)
Week 5: Assessment of Head, Neck, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat DCE: Focused Exam: Cough Case Study Assignment: Assessing the Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat (Episodic SOAP Note)
Week 6: Assessment of the Abdomen and Gastrointestinal System Lab Assignment: Assessing the Abdomen (Analyze SOAP Note)
Week 7: Assessment of the Heart, Lungs, and Peripheral Vascular System DCE: Focused Exam: Chest Pain
Week 8: Assessment of the Musculoskeletal System Discussion: Assessing Musculoskeletal Pain (Episodic SOAP Note)
Week 9: Assessment of Cognition and the Neurologic System DCE: Comprehensive (head-to-toe) Physical Assessment Case Study Assignment: Assessing Neurological Symptoms (Episodic SOAP Note)
Week 10: Special Examinations—Breast, Genital, Prostate, and Rectal Lab Assignment: Assessing the Genitalia and Rectum (analyze SOAP Note)
Module 4: Ethics in Assessment
Week 11: The Ethics Behind Assessment Lab Assignment: Ethical Concerns
Next Week
To go to the next week:

Week 3

Week 3: Assessment Tools, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurement, and Nutrition in Adults and Children
Many experts predict that genetic testing for disease susceptibility is well on its way to becoming a routine part of clinical care. Yet many of the genetic tests currently being developed are, in the words of the World Health Organization (WHO), of “questionable prognostic value.”

—Leslie Pray, PhD

Obesity remains one of the most common chronic diseases in the United States. As a leading cause of United States mortality, morbidity, disability, healthcare utilization and healthcare costs, the high prevalence of obesity continues to strain the United States healthcare system (Obesity Society, 2016).  More than one-third (39.8%) of U.S. adults have obesity (CDC, 2018). The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars; the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight (CDC, 2018).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the rate of childhood obesity has tripled in the past 30 years, with an estimated 13.7 million children and adolescents considered obese (CDC, 2018). When seeking insights about a patient’s overall health and nutritional state, body measurements can provide a valuable perspective. This is particularly important with pediatric patients. Measurements such as height and weight can provide clues to potential health problems and help predict how children will respond to illness. Nurses need to be proficient at using assessment tools, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI) and growth charts, in order to assess nutrition-related health risks and pediatric development while being sensitive to other factors that may affect these measures. Body Mass Index is also used as a predictor for measurement of adult weight and health.

Assessments are constantly being conducted on patients, but they may not provide useful information. In order to ensure that health assessments provide relevant data, nurses should familiarize themselves with test-specific factors that may affect the validity, reliability, and value of these tools.

This week, you will explore various assessment tools and diagnostic tests that are used to gather information about patients’ conditions. You will examine the validity and reliability of these tests and tools. You will also examine assessment techniques, health risks and concerns, and recommendations for care related to patient growth, weight, and nutrition.

Learning Objectives
Students will:

Evaluate validity and reliability of assessment tools and diagnostic tests
Analyze diversity considerations in health assessments
Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to examination techniques, functional assessments, and cultural and diversity awareness in health assessment
Apply assessment skills to collect patient health histories
Learning Resources
Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)
Required Media (click to expand/reduce)
Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children
When seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.

Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture—among other factors—are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Hero Images

For this Assignment, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.

To Prepare
Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You also will review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI.
By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to one of the following Assignment options by your Instructor: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests (option 1), or Child Health Case (Option 2). Note: Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignments from your Instructor.
Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you were assigned. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather?
Also, as you search the Walden library and credible sources, consider what the literature discusses regarding the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool.
If you are assigned Assignment Option 2 (Child), consider what health issues and risks may be relevant to the child in the health example.
Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.
The Assignment
Assignment (3–4 pages, not including title and reference pages):

Assignment Option 1: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests:
Include the following:

A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.
What is its purpose?
How is it conducted?
What information does it gather?
Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include references in appropriate APA formatting.
Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case:
Include the following:

An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned.
Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health.
Identify and describe any risks and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information.
Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.
By Day 6 of Week 3
Submit your Assignment.

Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
Click the Week 3 Assignment 1 Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Week 3 Assignment 1 link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK3Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria
To access your rubric:

Week 3 Assignment 1 Option 1 Rubric

To access your rubric:

Week 3 Assignment 1 Option 2 Rubric

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 3 Assignment 1 draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 6 of Week 3
To participate in this Assignment:

Week 3 Assignment 1

Assignment 2: Digital Clinical Experience (DCE): Health History Assessment
A comprehensive health history is essential to providing quality care for patients across the lifespan, as it helps to properly identify health risks, diagnose patients, and develop individualized treatment plans. To effectively collect these heath histories, you must not only have strong communication skills, but also the ability to quickly establish trust and confidence with your patients. For this DCE Assignment, you begin building your communication and assessment skills as you collect a health history from a volunteer “patient.”

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Caiaimage

To Prepare
Review this week’s Learning Resources as well as the Taking a Health History media program, and consider how you might incorporate these strategies. Download and review the Student Checklist: Health History Guide and the History Subjective Data Checklist, provided in this week’s Learning Resources, to guide you through the necessary components of the assessment.
Access and login to Shadow Health using the link in the left-hand navigation of the Blackboard classroom.
Review the Shadow Health Student Orientation media program and the Useful Tips and Tricks document provided in the week’s Learning Resources to guide you through Shadow Health.
Review the Week 4 DCE Health History Assessment Rubric, provided in the Assignment submission area, for details on completing the Assignment.
DCE Health History Assessment:

Complete the following in Shadow Health:

Orientation

DCE Orientation (15 minutes)
Conversation Concept Lab (50 minutes)
Health History

Health History of Tina Jones (180 minutes)
Note: Each Shadow Health Assessment may be attempted and reopened as many times as necessary prior to the due date to achieve 80% or better, but you must take all attempts by the Week 4 Day 7 deadline.

Submission and Grading Information
No Assignment submission due this week but will be due Day 7, Week 4.

Grading Criteria
To access your rubric:

Week 4 Assignment 2 DCE Rubric

What’s Coming Up in Module 3?

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

In Module 3, you will examine advanced health assessments using a system focused approach.

Next week, you will specifically explore how to assess the skin, hair, and nails, as well as how to evaluate abnormal skin findings while conducting health assessments. You will also complete your first Lab Assignment: Differential Diagnosis for Skin Conditions as well as complete your DCE: Health History Assessment in the simulation tool, Shadow Health.

Week 4 Required Media

Photo Credit: [fergregory]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will need to view several videos and animations in Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination as well as other media, as required, prior to completing your Lab Assignment. There are several videos in varied lengths. Please plan ahead to ensure you have time to view these media programs to

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our Guarantees

Money-back Guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism Guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision Policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy Policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

4-hour deadlines

Your urgent tasks will be completed within 4 hours. Your discussion responses and late orders will be will be handled fast and we still maintain our quality.

Read more
error: