Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay

Learning Outcome 1: Recent developments in mental health law and policy in the United Kingdom

Health care for people with psychological disabilities in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, is overseen by the National Health Service (NHS) Trust, but commissioned collaboratively by Health Authorities and the Primary Care Groups (PCGs) (Mills & Phull, 2017). In pursuit of a more empowering legal framework for mental health care, various reforms on the mental laws in different UK jurisdictions have been implemented. In the United Kingdom, the Mental Health Act of 1983 has undergone vigorous expansions to ensure that individuals with psychological disabilities have more control over their treatment, and receive treatment and care that prioritizes their views. The Mental Health (Patients in the Community) Act of 1995, in England and Wales, was an amendment to the Mental Health Act which targeted to create and ensure the provision of Aftercare under Supervision Orders (ACUS’s) in a bid to bolster the powers and social function of various mental health authorities Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay. In Scotland, the amendment enabled the creation of compulsory Community Care Orders targeting specific mental disorders. The Act not only enabled people with psychological disabilities to access mental health care facilities, but also facilitated their engagement in the care process through sustained supervision, as opposed to the traditional guardianship order.


The New Labor and their pledged to reform the National Health Services (NHS) in 1997, caused considerable mental health policy reforms. Frank Dobson’s document Modernising Mental Health Services articulated the government’s intentions to provide a legal basis that extends care providers’ powers to extend supervision. Dorbson’s proposals mainly focused on empowering care providers to supervise patients on their medication patterns or whenever their conditions deteriorate Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay. The proposal suggested that future policy reforms would include compulsory treatment and care delivery. The policy was praised for the way it eased the procedures for pressing domestic cases involving people with psychological disabilities(McCulloch, Muijen, & Harper, 2000). In the attempt to shape mental health policy in the UK, however, Dobson’s Modernising Mental Health Services policy attracted considerable contradictory issues. Dorbson’s policy was broadly criticised for its potentials to enforce additional restrictions for patients with mental illnesses in pursuit of public safety. In the forcible treatment lawsuit, R (Wilkinson) v RMO Broadmoor Hospital, for instance, critics highlighted that the reasoning of the jury was not aligned with procedural standards, but was reached from a subjective viewpoint. In the recent years, article 5 (4) of the Mental Health Act have created a more favorable climate as it emphasizes procedural safeguards concerning the detention of mentally ill persons and speeds up their release if detentions are deemed unlawful Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

Perhaps a major amendment of the Mental Health Act 1983 was the enactment of Remedial Order 2001 following recommendations by the Mental Health Review Tribunal that the act was incompatible with the Human Rights Act 1998. The Mental Health Review Tribunal, following a Court of Appeal ruling in the lawsuit R(H) v. Mental Health Review Tribunal, that the provisions of the Act did align with the provisions of the Human Rights Act. The suspect, H, had been detained under section 37 and section 41 of the Mental Health Act, but reports of two psychiatrists found that he had schizophrenia, hence not suitable for detention under the MHA 1983. The current mental health policy remained incapable of establishing satisfactory legal trajectory, but also the relevant domestic authorities failed to sufficiently provide the resources needed to implement remedial order 2001 into community care in England and Wales (Richardson, 2005). The department of Health proposed the Draft Mental Health Bill of 2002, which focused fundamentally on mitigating the risks that people with mental disabilities pose members of the public (Carr, 2001). However, the Draft Mental Bill faced severe opposition, with most stakeholders citing potential threat to human rights. In Scotland, the amendment Mental Health (Care and Treatment Act 2003 set out additional provisions that further guided the use of compulsion for detaining and treating patients with mental illnesses Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

Despite the Rosie Winterton’s bill receiving in July 2007 and becoming an amendment of the MHA 1983, the 2010s saw more policy reviews targeting to empower people with mental illnesses to have more control over their treatment and care delivery. Introduced by Labour Member of Parliament Steve Reed, the Mental Health Units (Use of Force) Act 2018 has fostered oversight and management of forceful detentions within mental health care facilities. Nonetheless, the proposed Mental Health Act White Paper, published on 13 January 2021 targets to expand choice and autonomy options for people living with psychological disabilities, hence ensuring that the provisions of the Act are not used restrictively, patients can access care, and all mental health patients treated equally(Owen, 2019). Aside from expanding the functions and capacities of mental health advocates for effective care access, the proposed amendments aims to enhance community access to mental health care through the prevention of unwarranted detentions and abuse of the act Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay. Also, the NHS long-term Plan, released in 2019, targets to expand the number of people receiving annual mental care services to 380,000 people across the UK (House Of Commons, 2021). However, being a devolved function, England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland are responsible for formulating individual mental health policy that wholesomely target the mental health needs of young people, suicidal populations, perinatal population, and women.

Learning Outcome: The impact of social and medical perspectives on assessment, working relationships and interventions when working with people who experience mental distress.

The sociological and medical approaches to mental and psychological wellbeing are fundamentally divergent in that they view the underlying causes and factors that determine mental health. In an overview, the sociological perspectives of psychological disability and mental wellbeing tend to assess how various social aspects inform mental health’s stature. Such factors include the effects of positive or negative life events, stress emanating from ongoing life events, levels of quality social support, the demanding nature of social roles, and the underlying sociocultural systems that define meaning (Hogan, 2019). The Case of Ruth’s mental stature, her involvement in alcohol and substance abuse, and overdependence on Meghan’s support provide a unique example of social determinants of mental health Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay. On the other hand, the medical conceptualization views psychological disability in its construction as a brain disease that requires the understanding of neuronal pathways and gene-environment interaction models to guide diagnostic processes for effective treatment (Harvey, 2019). Ruth Allen (2014) outlines that while social and medical views of psychological disabilities seemingly oppose one another, their origins and evolving meanings share profoundly. For instance, sociologists assess the medicalization of certain mental illnesses leading to the increased use of prescription drugs to mitigate related problems.

Social and medical professionals understand that psychological disability is radical. Therefore, despite divergent conceptions, both medical and social perspectives prioritize t assessment, interventions, and good relationships crucial to the efficacy of interventional efficacy and recovery processes of mental illness. Besides, both medical and social perspectives of mental health increasingly recognize the importance of using assessment and treatment services to improve the patient experience to foster excellent care outcomes Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay. However, establishing and sustaining good relationships between care providers and those utilizing mental health care services is still a challenge. Social workers and caregivers should assess and utilize the available evidence from research to guide the processes of establishing and sustaining relationships with patients with psychological disabilities (Gilburt, Rose, & Slade, 2008). For instance, in Ruth’s situation, one social worker, Sue, seems tolerable. As Ruth reports, Sue “seemed to go out of the way for me, but she’s off sick.” Other professionals in the psychiatry wards, community alcohol team members, and the Accident and Emergency wards should prioritize evidence-based practices to eliminate Ruth’s feeling of “guilt with a sense of shame.”They can gradually establish and sustain a therapeutic alliance that will facilitate the treatment process Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

Nonetheless, there exists an enormous yet gradual change in the way people in the United Kingdom view, define and seekhelp from relevant service providers for treatment and management of psychological and behavioural illnesses. Evidence emanating from both social and medical views of mental illness has emphasized the relevance of prescription drugs and therapeutic approaches to responding to suffering. Preventive policies targeting identifying the causes and eliminating mental illnesses from the root cause, such as the Mental Health Units (Use of Force) Act 2018are premised on both sociological and medical evidence. For instance, in the past recent decades, the medicalisation of social issues was a common phenomenon. Medicalisation, in this sense, translates to the use of medical approaches (medication) to address mental difficulties that were previously viewed as nonmedical. The rise in the incidence of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder among children as they grow to adults is an example of diseases previously viewed (NHS, 2020). Medical and social evidence can guide caregivers to indulge in the processes of assessment, intervention design and relationship building with their clients Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

Assessment and interventions can be designed both from social and medical viewpoints. Caregivers should use existing scholarly evidence to assess and design interventions based on Ruth’s poor sleep patterns, past evidence of guilt and shame concerning Meghan’s sexual abuse, constant feeling of isolation, and continued fear of social contact, fear of treatment, and large consumption of alcohol and abuse of prescription medicine (Scheid & Wright, 2009). Also applicable to the assessment of Ruth’s situation is medical assessment. Such aspects would include gathering information about past and current medical history, assessing premorbid personality, linking behaviour to psychomotor function, and conducting differential diagnosis (Hogan, 2019). Possible social responses to Ruth’s mental health situation include offering high-level social support, examining and addressing her past adverse life events through psychotherapy, strengthening her cultural systems that foster meaning (Scheid & Wright, 2009). On the other hand, medical intervention would include psychotherapy alone psychotherapy mediated with medication (Hogan, 2019). Both methods must utilize relationship to facilitate desired health outcomes and foster recovery Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

Learning Outcome 3: Opportunities and challenges of working as a social worker in interdisciplinary mental health service settings

Today’s healthcare delivery model has evolved and has become more interconnected than before. As such, there has emerged the urgent need for healthcare professionals such as nurses, physicians, social workers, pharmacists, dieticians, psychologists, and other professionals to coordinate activities within care settings to enhance the quality and outcome of care (Morley & Cashell, 2017). This approach to patient care delivery from a team-based viewpoint is called inter-professional collaboration. A report published by the World Health Organization recorded that healthcare organizations that effectively and strategically implement inter-professional collaboration achieve superior care quality and outcomes. This is because the integrative nature, along with the unified work emerging from multiple disciplines, facilitates value and effectiveness in improving patient outcomes (World Health Organisation,2010). In the United Kingdom, the NHS has designed four primary core competencies which the inter-professional practice framework targets to achieve (Reeves, 2017). These competency domains include acquiring the values and ethics that underlie inter-professional collaboration, understanding the rationale for inter-professional collaborative coordination, enhancing communication as a basis for inter-professional communication, and facilitating team coordination and teamwork as an integral approach to attaining a shared goal Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

Along with the collective implementation of systems and structures that support collaborative coordination, the four domains go a long way in enhancing quality outcomes. A broad and progressive body of research has linked the presence and effectiveness of a collaborative care delivery framework with specific factors. The first factor is organizational structure. Clinical, administrative systems should foster collaboration by adopting collaborative administration characterized by effective communication and colocation (Ambrose-Miller & Ashcroft, 2016). The second factor is the individual’s professional identity and view of the practice. Ambrose-Miller & Ashcroft (2016) argues that social workers that were previously accustomed to offering services within sole environments should negotiate new roles as members of a new and interdisciplinary team and learn to be dependent on others from their teams. Lastly, the presence or absence of overt and covert power dynamics can potentially hinder the effectiveness of inter-professional collaboration within clinical settings Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

Collaborative care within mental health care delivery settings extends various benefits to patients such as Ruth and other patients with psychological disabilities. A possible interdepartmental collaboration and coordination of care between the psychiatric, community alcohol team, accident and emergency professionals, and the psychologists could lead to improved care quality and outcomes.In Ruth’s case, each department’s professionals seemed to possess a unique perspective and valuable insights into her mental health situation. Improvement in the quality of care also emerges from interdisciplinary collaboration to eliminate errors (Bosch & Mansell, 2015). Bosch & Mansell (2015) found that care facilities that implement collaborative care coordination registered reduced preventable drug reactions cut down mortality rates emerging from preventable eras, and attained optimal prescription accuracy Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay. With a collectively approached framework of care delivery that involves active communication, group conversation, and frequent loop-ins of pharmacists and nurses, the possibilities of multiple diagnoses, prescription and multiple medications reduce. Also, interdisciplinary coordination of care at the facility could enhance the quality of relationship among professionals and one another, and with patients. With each professional cognizant of their roles and responsibilities in care delivery, inter-professional collaboration could enhance trust between Ruth and professionals from each department (Bosch & Mansell, 2015). Her over-dependence on Meghan for social support reduces, and she can pursue her university education to completion in the long run.

For several decades, professional social workers have remained instrumental in mental health promotion. They offer mental health counselling to persons, families, and other groups of patients within the social services contexts. Social workers are readily modelled to work within team-based environments by their profession. Their presence is characterised by a different perspective and approach to mental health promotion (Auliffe, 2009). Social workers attract a unique yet significantly strong perspective on mental health care, fostering interdisciplinary collaboration in mental health treatment. Bringing social workers who possess knowledge about the community resources and understands the extant legibility guidelines is a strategic effort to eliminate possible barriers that hinder mentally challenged people from accessing mental health services Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

However, studies have also registered that social workers face specific challenges when they become interdisciplinary care coordination teams in intellectual disability facilities. According to Giles (2016), one of the challenges facing social workers framed within mental health social work today is stigma. Serving both advocacy and education roles for intellectually challenged people, social workers work in constant fear that their jobs can be in jeopardy when they do not successfully help patients overcome their conditions (Blacker & Deveau, 2010). Additionally, patients such as Ruth who remain both unwilling and reluctant to explore the available social and medical interventions increase the shame experienced by their family members, informing frustrations. Despite these challenges extant within multidisciplinary settingssocial workers foster mental health through education and advocacy by linking relevant information to team members Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

Learning outcome 4: Perspectives on the causes of problematic substance misuse and the links between substance misuse and mental distress

Mental wellness is one of the four crucial aspects of the individual, family, and communitywide wellbeing. Sound mental health is crucial as it empowers us to navigate our day-to-day indulgences in pursuit of our goals and in attempts to foster resiliency when we face adversities. Smith et al. (2017) highlights that good mental health supports productivity and facilitates our interests to establish and sustain social cohesion by forming meaningful relationships. Unfortunately in the United Kingdom, a recent report published by the Department of Healththrough NHS, MHFA England, and Dugscope reveals the extent to which mental diseases and substance abuse have ravaged the country Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay. Mental health issues and psychological disabilities, including suicide, neurological disorders, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, and substance use disorders, have persisted across various ages, affecting more than 164.8 million people aged above 12 years (NHS, 2020).The history of Ruth’s indulgence with alcohol and abuse of prescription drugs borrows eminently from this link. Also on a pervasive rise is the incidence of stigma against people living with mental disorders. This, along with failure to access and utilize supportive social and medical services, further exposes such individuals to alcohol and substance abuse Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

The link between substance abuse and mental health disorders has been exploited. However, most studies have not found significant evidence explaining the aspect that leads to another. For instance, Turner et al. (2018) explain that while abuse of drugs such as methamphetamine and marijuana is known to cause extensive psychotic reaction episodes, alcohol consumption worsens the symptoms of depression and anxiety. Robinson & Sareen (2011) found that alcohol and drug substances are often used as a source of self-medication to suppress the symptoms of emerging or persistent mental health conditions, including difficult emotions and unpredictable mood change. This form of medication through abuse of prescription drugs, alcohol, or other forms of drugs causes extended side effects that eventually make the symptoms of the psychiatrist symptoms worse Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

Another set of findings contributing to the complex interaction between mental disorders and alcohol and substance abuse is that one increases the other’s underlying (Chiu et al., 2018). Borrowing both from social and medical perspectives, psychological disability emerges due to a complex interaction between one’s genes, the environment, and sociological factors. Chiu et al. (2018) explain that individuals at high risks of suffering mental illnesses such as schizophrenia may suffer more intense psychotic symptoms when they indulge in opioid abuse. A shared theme among these scholarly publications on the link between alcohol and substance abuse with mental health is that substance abuse problems and mental health issues do not get better with time when not addressed. Instead, most mental health conditions and substance abuse issues are likely to worsen if not met with timely interventions Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.

The complex interaction between alcohol and substance abuse and mental health problems picture dual diagnosis. Dual diagnosis represents a situation where an individual shows coexisting symptoms of a known mental health condition and alcohol or drug problem, or both (Young et al., 2018). It is often difficult and time-consuming to tease out, clearly identify, and differentiate mental health conditions from alcohol or drug problems. The signs and symptoms indicating alcohol abuse, abuse of recreational or prescription drugs, or other forms of drugs differ considerably when closely scrutinized. Ruth’s continued use of alcohol and prescription drugs to overcome the unpleasant memories surrounding her past life, mitigate mood-related pains, and face realities of her perceived shame reveals a vivid example of dual diagnosis (Fantuzzi & Mezzina, 2020). While she has previously been diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and schizophrenia at the psychiatry, the Community Alcohol Team has also observed that she drinks heavily when her psychotic symptoms peak. Interventions targeting Ruth’s situation should leverage the integration of social and medical approaches and take into consideration the underlying psychological factors informing her condition (Subodh, Sharma, & Shah, 2018). Besides, her long journey to recovery from both mental health and substance abuse problem depends on how well she readjusts towards recognising and accepting treatment from the various teams Mental Health Learning Outcomes Essay.


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