Congestive heart failure is a chronic disease that causes considerable mortality and morbidity. CHF decreases patients’ functional capabilities and influences quality of life and self-care. According to Toback and Clark (2017) treatment of CHF needs medication management as well as lifestyle interventions aimed at minimizing exacerbations frequency. There is a general recognition that self-management or active participation of patients taking care of themselves is of vital significance for the attainment of improved clinical outcomes. Management of African American Males with CHF
Toukhsati et al (2015) argue that CHF patients are required to self-manage the disease through adhering to medication regimens, regular exercise and appropriate diet and evaluating changes in symptoms like difficulties in breathing and weight gain. Efforts to promote care of CHF patients within primary care clinics requires an understanding of the needs of the patient so as to craft approaches that will best meet these needs. The objective of this study is to explore and have an understanding of the tools needed for effective management CHF in primary care clinics to help improve the overall outcomes among African American males.
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The study will be performed through a descriptive qualitative method of research. The study will be executed in the cardiology clinics of six hospitals. According to Nassaji (2015), in qualitative research, data is collected qualitatively and analyzed mainly through qualitative methods. This often includes inductive assessment of the collected data so as to identify reappearing concepts, themes, and patterns and then offering a description and interpretation of these categories. Management of African American Males with CHF
Setting and participants information
For a period of one year, I will interview twenty-five patients. The age of participants will range from forty to eighty years, with the mean age being sixty years. I will record about gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and marital status. The study will be conducted in cardiology clinics of hospitals. Potential participants will be identified through searching their electronic medical records. So as to establish study eligibility, I will exclude people with serious illnesses such as kidney failure, cancer or key mental disorder and thus not able to provide informed consent to participate in the study. In order to bring out experiences of patients with diverse diversity of CHF, I will purposely balance my sample so that around a third of the patients will have been admitted in hospital for heart failure for the past two weeks.
Data will be collected through in-depth interviews. Interviews will be conducted in a suitable room of the clinic with stable participants. The interviews will take around twenty forty to sixty. The interviews will be audio recorded with the participants’ consent. A semi-structured interview guide will be used and patients will be asked how they interact with the healthcare scheme as well as their self-care experiences. The interviewer will keep records of the communications, interactions and emotional reactions of the participants.
Participants will be permitted to be in the company of the people who support them. Supporters will not be asked any questions concerning their personal information or medical problems, though they will be required to offer written consent for recording and transcription of their comments. Recording and transcription will be done in a verbatim. Management of African American Males with CHF
Data will be analyzed through thematic analysis technique. According to Nowell et al (2017).Thematic analysis is a scheme that accommodates different tactics to qualitative data and highlights thoughtfulness and transparency on the underlying basic analytical selections. An inductive approach that is in consistence with grounded theory will be used. Nowell et al (2017) argue that through an inductive approach, themes are recognized in the procedure of comprehending the collected data which is different from a hypothetical approach which is compelled by principal questions or approaches within the present literature.
I will analyze data at an explicit level and focus on what people who participated in the interview said but not on the circumstantial or hypothetical factors that theoretically shapes what was said by participants. In addition, I will utilize an essentialist model to draw implication from statements given by the participants instead of a constructionist model that will theorize on the contextual factors that will enable, constrain or shape participants’ statements. The subset of transcripts will be reviewed to generate a codebook that will focus on the developing themes. Through conventional analysis methodologies, i will iterative refine the codebook, code the texts, recognize novel themes and then combine categories of themes that will overlap.
How statistical tests will help answer the PICOT problem
Output of any statistical tests will help in understanding how patients’ level of care and self-management skills influence patients’ outcomes. Additionally, the test will help in determining the barriers and facilitators in self-management among African American males with CHF. Sezgin and Mert (2017) argue that it is crucial for clinicians to have an understanding the problems that heart failure patients encounter from the perspectives of patients in order to effectively craft effective management programs. In addition, primary care providers can offer better assistance to African American males with CHF if they understand the cultural problems connected with self-management of the illness. The identified common themes defining the experiences of participants of having CHF and getting care will influence their capacity to take part in self-management. Management of African American Males with CHF
Nowell, L., Norris, J., & White D et al (2017). Thematic Analysis: Striving to Meet Trustworthiness Criteria. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16(1): 1-13.
Nassaji, H. (2015). Qualitative and descriptive research: Data type versus data analysis. Language Teaching Research, 19(2): 129-132.
Toback, M., & Clark, N. (2017). Strategies to improve self-management in heart failure patients. Contemporary Nurse, 53(1): 105-120.
Toukhsati, S., Driscoll, A., & Hare, D. (2015). Patient Self-Management in Chronic Heart Failure- Establishing Concordance Between Guidelines and Practice. Cardiac Failure Review, 1(2): 128-131.
Sezgin, D., & Mert, H. (2017). Self- Care Management of Individuals with Heart Failure: A qualitative Study. International Journal of Caring Sciences. 10(1): 285- 292. Management of African American Males with CHF
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