Bio Study Guide
What is a buffer?
Explain the pH scale.
Compare/contrast acids & bases.
Know the 4 classes of macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins) & what sets them apart from each other.
What happens to macromolecules that are consumed by humans or other animals?
What are the different types of carbs?
Define polysaccharide & monosaccharide.
What is glucose?
Differentiate between starch, cellulose, glycogen, chitin.
Describe the 4 types of lipids (fats/oils, phospholipids, waxes, steroids).
How do they differ from each other, & what are their main functions?
Why is protein structure/shape important? What can destroy a protein’s structure?
What do enzymes do?
Describe lactase, building & breaking bonds using enzymes, tyrosinase, catalyze.
Be able to list and explain the 5 steps of the scientific method & apply them to a given question.
Define experimental group, control group, experimental/independent variable, controlled variable, dependent variable, & be able to find & describe them when presented with a sample hypothesis or study.
Be able to write a properly worded hypothesis in the if…then format.
What is ecology?
Understand population, community, & ecosystem ecology.
What is an ecological niche?
Define keystone species & describe an example.
Explain & give examples of the categories of community-level interactions among species: competition, herbivory, predation, & symbiotic associations.
Understand & describe the 3 types of symbiotic associations (mutualism, parasitism, commensalism): How do they differ?
What are the effects on the organisms involved?
Given a sample interaction, be able to place it in the correct category.
Define trophic structure. What does a trophic “pyramid” look like?
What are autotrophs, heterotrophs, producers, consumers (primary, secondary), decomposers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, & detritivores, & how do they fit in the pyramid?
How do the different levels of the pyramid affect each other?
Define biomagnification, biomass.
Why is it important for a trophic pyramid to be balanced, & what happens if it is not?
Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes: What are they? How are they different/the same?
Name an example of each. Be able to describe the basic functions of various organelles: nucleus, nucleolus, ribosome, transport vesicle, lysosome, mitochondrion, chloroplast, central vacuole.
Define cell wall, cytoplasm, plasma membrane.
Understand the differences between plant & animal cells.
Explain the differences between mitochondria & chloroplasts.
Do animal cells contain both?
Do plant cells contain both?
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