Macromolecules Different Types of Carbs

Bio Study Guide

What is a buffer?

Explain the pH scale.

Compare/contrast acids & bases.

Know the 4 classes of macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins) & what sets them apart from each other.

What happens to macromolecules that are consumed by humans or other animals?

What are the different types of carbs?

Define polysaccharide & monosaccharide.

What is glucose?

Differentiate between starch, cellulose, glycogen, chitin.

Describe the 4 types of lipids (fats/oils, phospholipids, waxes, steroids).

How do they differ from each other, & what are their main functions?

Why is protein structure/shape important? What can destroy a protein’s structure?

Define ‘denature.’

What do enzymes do?

Describe lactase, building & breaking bonds using enzymes, tyrosinase, catalyze.

Be able to list and explain the 5 steps of the scientific method & apply them to a given question.

Define experimental group, control group, experimental/independent variable, controlled variable, dependent variable, & be able to find & describe them when presented with a sample hypothesis or study.

Be able to write a properly worded hypothesis in the if…then format.

What is ecology?

Understand population, community, & ecosystem ecology.

What is an ecological niche?

Define keystone species & describe an example.

Explain & give examples of the categories of community-level interactions among species: competition, herbivory, predation, & symbiotic associations.

Understand & describe the 3 types of symbiotic associations (mutualism, parasitism, commensalism): How do they differ?

What are the effects on the organisms involved?

Given a sample interaction, be able to place it in the correct category.

Define trophic structure. What does a trophic “pyramid” look like?

What are autotrophs, heterotrophs, producers, consumers (primary, secondary), decomposers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, & detritivores, & how do they fit in the pyramid?

How do the different levels of the pyramid affect each other?

Define biomagnification, biomass.

Why is it important for a trophic pyramid to be balanced, & what happens if it is not?

Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes: What are they? How are they different/the same?

Name an example of each. Be able to describe the basic functions of various organelles: nucleus, nucleolus, ribosome, transport vesicle, lysosome, mitochondrion, chloroplast, central vacuole.

Define cell wall, cytoplasm, plasma membrane.

Understand the differences between plant & animal cells.

Explain the differences between mitochondria & chloroplasts.

Do animal cells contain both?

Do plant cells contain both?

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