Evidence-based Practice Discussion

1.What levels of evidence are present in relation to research and practice, and why it is important regardless of the method you use?

2.What factors must be assessed when critically appraising quantitative studies (e.g., validity, reliability, and applicability)? Which is the most important? Why? Evidence-based Practice Discussion


Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare: A Guide to Best Practice
Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2014). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to best practice(3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN-13: 9781451190946


Levels of evidence and importance
There are seven levels of evidence that are based on the study design and strength of evidence as presented in ascending order. The first level concerns meta-analysis and systematic review. The second level concerns randomized controlled trials. The third level concerns controlled trials without randomization. The fourth level concerns cohort and case control studies. The fifth level concerns systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies. The sixth level concerns descriptive and qualitative studies as well as evidence implementation projects. The final level concerns expert opinion. Grading studies into the seven different levels is important since it shows how much studies can be trusted in terms of their results and the strength of recommendation (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2014). In essence, the ranking system describes how much strength the results of a study has and can be trusted to inform evidence-based practice.

Factors to assess when appraising quantitative studies
Critical appraisal of quantitative studies should consider validity, reliability and applicability as functions of utility. Validity is a research concept that matches the actual research study with its intentions and objectives to include measuring what was intended, reflecting the prevailing reality, and being generalizable for the study population. Reliability is a research concept that refers to consistency and stability of the assessment tool applied in a research study. Applicability refers to the extent to which the results of a study will influence actual practice and its subjectivity (Greenhalgh, 2014). Although the three research concepts (validity, reliability and applicability) are important in a research study in terms of assessing the value of the different aspects of the study, perhaps the most important concept is applicability. That is because the most important aspect of research is how well it can be trusted to influence practice in terms of matching the prevailing institutional values, context and environment. Any study that is not applicable can be considered as having no value since it does not influence practice whereas an applicable study is valuable since it influences practice (Dang & Dearholt, 2017). Evidence-based Practice Discussion


Dang, D. & Dearholt, S. (2017). Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice: model and guideline (3rd ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.

Greenhalgh, T. (2014). How to read a paper: the basics of evidence-based medicine (5th ed.). Hoboken NJ: BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

Melnyk, B., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2014). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: a guide to best practice (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Evidence-based Practice Discussion

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