Dyslexia is a term that is commonly used to refer to reading difficulty. It is characterized by difficulty in learning where the child cannot accurately and fluently identify speech sounds. It is a reading disability that is neurologically originated. However, affected children are always of normal vision and intelligence (Marshall, 2013). Taking care of dyslexic children may be frustrating and demanding for their parents. Parents may be stressed wondering over the need of these kids, where to get help, the diagnosis, and treatment or whether the child will be normal again. This paper will give a detailed parent guide to dyslexia so that they can at least get a rough idea of the disorder because, children may become withdrawn and appear to be depressed, they may begin to act out, drawing attention away from their learning difficulty, problems with self-esteem can arise, and peer and sibling interactions can become strained and these children may lose their interest in school-related activities and appear to be unmotivated or lazy. Dyslexia Assignment Discussion Paper
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Dyslexia occurs in people of all backgrounds and intellectual levels. People who are very bright can be dyslexic. They are often capable or even gifted in areas that do not require strong language skills, such as art, computer science, design, drama, electronics, math, mechanics, music, physics, sales, and sports (idonline.com).
Signs and symptoms of Dyslexia
Children may show delayed onset of speech, get distracted easily by background noise, as well as lack of phonologic awareness. Another closely mythical sign is backward reading or writing and mirror reading. Dyslexic children have difficulty in identifying and generating rhyming words and the counts of syllables in a word. They exhibit reduced phonemic aware – cannot join or segment word to produce sounds. Difficulty in word retrieval and naming of things. They may also have problems with spelling (Reid, 2016). Auditory problems are a dyslexia concern that occurs in dyslexia. The child may have difficulty remembering or understanding what he hears, slow or inaccurate reading, poor spelling, poor writing, or mixing up similar words. Recalling sequences of things or more than one command at a time can be difficult, delayed early language development, problems recognizing the differences between similar sounds or segmenting word, slow learning of new vocabulary words, and difficulty copying from the board or a book. Dyslexia Assignment Discussion Paper
Dyslexia is a reading disorder that is believed to be of neurological origin. This is because changes have been noticed in the brains of Dyslexic individuals. Scientists believe that Dyslexia originates mostly from the cortical dysfunction that is caused by the abnormalities on the congenital neurodevelopment. It is suspected that Dyslexia is associated with lesions that affect the interaction or integration of the brain functions (Marshall, 2004). It mostly affects the left hemisphere of the brain that constitutes the areas responsible for speech and sound production and language association. Dyslexia is also genetically related. Children from families with a history of Dyslexia are at higher risks of contracting the disease because of its hereditary nature (Hall, 2009).
Dyslexia is a learning disorder that affects your ability to read, spell, write, and speak. Kids who have it are often smart and hardworking, but they have trouble connecting the letters they see to the sounds those letters make. The condition stems from differences in parts of the brain that process language. Imaging scans in people with dyslexia show that areas of the brain. someone with dyslexia, the word \”cat\” might read as \”tac.\” Because of these mix-ups, reading can be a slow and difficult process. Psychologists, neurologists, and special educators have understood that as well and since the 1970s have assumed dyslexia has a neurological basis. In fact, the term “dyslexia” actually stems from the Greek alexia, which literally means “loss of the word” and was the diagnostic term used when adults lost the ability to read after suffering a brain injury. Dyslexia was a term adopted to confer a lesser (though still neurologically based) form of reading impairment seen in children. However, determining the neurological basis has been elusive until relatively recently.
There are various tests that can be done by a teacher or a computer to determine the possibility of Dyslexia. When such possibilities are suspected, further tests are done to ascertain the nature and extent of the disease (Reid, 2016). The test also includes intelligent tests. Child’s functional reading is determined and compared to his/her reading potential. Examination of all aspects of the reading process is thoroughly done to determine where the breakdown occurs. The tests determine where the learning potential of the child lies, whether in the hearing, seeing, or doing contexts. They also check the performance potential of the child whether in output, oral, or tactile-kinesthetic (Hall, 2009). They further check the coordination if the modalities (sensory system). Dyslexia Assignment Discussion Paper
Early identification and treatment are the key to helping dyslexics achieve in school and in life. Most people with dyslexia need help from a teacher, tutor, or therapist specially trained in using a multisensory, structured language approach. It is important for these individuals to be taught by a systematic and explicit method that involves several senses (hearing, seeing, touching) at the same time. Many individuals with dyslexia need one-on-one help so that they can move forward at their own pace.
Treatment of Dyslexia is through educational interventions. This can take various forms and aids such as directly or indirectly instructing the Dyslexic child recognize words as well as the use of component skills (Marshall, 2004). Direct instruction involves the teaching of phonics skills to the affect child. Indirect teaching is the integration of these phonics skills into reading. You can teach the kid using the whole-word, whole-language or multisensory approaches. Composite skills involve teaching the child how to join words, blend sounds, and word segmentation among others. Compensatory mechanisms such audiobooks, digital recording can also be used (Chivers, 2004).
In addition, students with dyslexia often need a great deal of structured practice and immediate, corrective feedback to develop automatic word recognition skills. For students with dyslexia, it is helpful if their outside academic therapists work closely with classroom teachers. Dyslexia Assignment Discussion Paper
Schools can implement academic accommodations and modifications to help dyslexic students succeed. For example, a student with dyslexia can be given extra time to complete tasks, help with taking notes, and work assignments that are modified appropriately. Teachers can give taped tests or allow dyslexic students to use alternative means of assessment. Students can benefit from listening to books on tape, using text reading computer programs, and from writing on computers.
Students may also need help with emotional issues that sometimes arise because of difficulties in school. Mental health specialists can help students cope with their struggles (Idoline, 2012). According to Stothard, Woods, & Innoue, 2018, educational psychologist should be present in schools to help student with psychological knowledge, cognitive development, and language acquisition.
In summary, parents should know that having a dyslexic child is not a curse. Rather, they need to be clear-minded and focus on getting help for the children. With the required knowledge of the disease process of dyslexia, parents can achieve maximum success with its management. Ideally, dyslexic children can still achieve functional literacy if appropriate assistance is offered.
The paper was presented well and clearly. However, it important to mention the magnitude of the problem the fact that it’s a lifelong condition. Approximately 1 in 10 people are dyslexic with over 40million American adults being dyslexic and 2 million actually knowing of it. Around 20% of school going children in the USA are dyslexic.It’s not linked to low intelligent quotient and is genetic (The International Dyslexia Association (IDA, 2014).
Parents should not be ashamed of their children and take responsibility of talking to the child’s teachers for help and emotional support. This will also enable the parent and teachers discuss enrolment of the child in programs like early literacy, springboard, and wave programs. Lack of adequate knowledge on dyslexia may leads to parental anxiety. This is due to concerns of child poor performance, loss of self-esteem, social withdrawal and exhibiting aggressive behaviors (Elliott, J.G. & Grigorenko, E.L., 2014). Dyslexia Assignment Discussion Paper
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It’s important to emphasize the need to support these children with dyslexia and reduce the reading discomfort and make learning enjoyable. This requires minimal corrections when the child is reading, commenting and encouraging the child for even small improvement in reading.
The teachers and parents can utilize various effective reading programs meant for children with dyslexia such as; Wilson Method, Orton-Gilling ham approach, preventing Academic failure (PAF), Linda mood-Bell Program, and RAVE-O methods. Use of supportive tools and technology such as; audio books, notes typing, and other apps that aids in phonological training in form of games. Also, it’s vital to mention to teachers and parents the need for accommodations by giving them extra time for tests, quite working environment, options of tape recording lessons, and avoidance of oral reading in public (Child mind institute, 2016). Parents need to be informed on the various support network and organization they can seek help form.
bvSharing experiences of famous people like Orlando Bloom, Stephen Spielberg, Albert Einstein and Patrick Dempsey who lived with dyslexia can encourage and motivate these children.
Moreover, it’s important to highlight the social and emotional impact of dyslexia because it’s a multifaceted condition. Other than affecting the reading and learning abilities, it has a great effect on the social and communication skills. The inability to remember word easily interferes with the child’s interaction with peers and response to social activities. This results to frustration and shame.
Child mind institute. (2016). Parents Guide to Dyslexia. childmind.org.
Elliott, J.G. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2014). The Dyslexia Debate. New York: Cambridge University Press.
The International Dyslexia Association (IDA. (2014). IDA Dyslexia Handbook: What Every Family Should Know. www.interdys.org Dyslexia Assignment Discussion Paper.
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