Diabetes and Drug Treatments paper

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Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Diabetes is an endocrine system disorder that affects millions of children and adults (ADA, 2011). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations. In this Assignment, you compare types of diabetes including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.

To prepare:
Review this week’s media presentation on the endocrine system and diabetes, as well as Chapter 46 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text and the Peterson et al. article in the Learning Resources.
Reflect on differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Select one type of diabetes.
Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients including effects of drug treatments. Diabetes and Drug Treatments paper
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By Day 7
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:

Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Include dietary considerations related to treatment.
Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects of drugs treatments.
Diabetes is typified by elevated levels of blood glucose due to the problems with insulin secretion or insulin action. Diabetes affects the ability of the body to use energy from food (McCall & Farhy, 2014). The focus of this paper is to present types of diabetes and discuss medication used in treating the selected type of diabetes, dietary consideration as well as the impact of the disease on patients.

Types of Diabetes

Most common kinds of diabetes include; gestational diabetes, type 1 diabetes (juvenile), and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune attacks and destroys the pancreas cells responsible for producing insulin hormone. When these cells are destroyed, the pancreas loses the ability to produce insulin or produces only small amounts of insulin (Christoffersson et al, 2016). In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is not able to generate insulin or if the body does not utilize the produced insulin effectively. On the other hand, gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy when the action of insulin is blocked by pregnancy hormones and this causes insulin resistance and elevated blood glucose levels (Christoffersson et al, 2016).

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes occurs due to total insulin deficiency and hence treatment involves supplementing insulin. Insulin is administered through subcutaneous injection or by using insulin pump (Arcangelo et al, 2017). Dosage of insulin is adjusted according to the food intake, physical activities, as well as blood glucose levels. Insulin administration aims to lower blood glucose level to near normal range (4.4–7.8 mmol/l). Type 1 diabetes requires continuous monitoring of blood glucose levels to ensure the levels are not too high or extremely low (Arcangelo et al, 2017).

Physical activity is important in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. Dietary monitoring is also essential and patients are encouraged to eat foods with low glycemic index in order to ensure modest increase of blood sugar; this gives the body adequate time to respond to the insulin dose. The timing of meals is very crucial and meals should match insulin doses. Individuals with type 1 diabetes should avoid skipping meals or eating late in order to avoid the risk of hypoglycemia (Aathira & Jain, 2014). Diabetes and Drug Treatments paper

Impact

Short-term effects of type 1 include low blood sugar levels where the blood glucose level may drop to extremely low levels (Laursen et al, 2017). Long-term effects include microvascular complications as a result of high blood glucose levels damaging the blood vessels in the body. Microvascular complications include cataracts/vision loss; kidney damage, and nerve disease. In addition, plague may accumulate due to constant high blood glucose levels and cause heart attack, stroke or peripheral vascular disease (Laursen et al, 2017).

Maintaining a healthy range of blood glucose levels through appropriate meal planning, adhering to treatment regimen and physical activities can avoid complications of diabetes (Aathira & Jain, 2014).

Conclusion

Treatment of Type 1 involves insulin supplementation through subcutaneous injection or by using insulin pump. Dietary planning, meal timing and physical activities are essential in the management of diabetes type 1. Short-term effects of type 1 diabetes are hypoglycemia especially with insulin, while long-term effects include microvascular complications. Diabetes and Drug Treatments paper

References

Aathira R & Jain V. (2014). Advances in management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes. 5(5): 689–696.

Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Christoffersson G, Teresa R & Mathias V. (2016). Recent advances in understanding Type 1 Diabetes. F1000Res. 5(110).

Laursen D, Bang K, Ulla C & Frolich A. (2017). Assessment of short and long-term outcomes of diabetes patient education using the health education impact questionnaire (HeiQ). BMC Res Notes. 10(213).

McCall A & Farhy L. (2014). Treating type 1 diabetes: from strategies for insulin delivery to dual hormonal control. Minerva Endocrinol.38(2): 145–163.Diabetes and Drug Treatments paper

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