Review the endocrine system and diabetes, as well as Chapter 46 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text and the Peterson et al. article in references section. Reflect on differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay.
Select one type of diabetes.
Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients including effects of drug treatments.
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Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:
Explain the differences between types of diabetes including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Include dietary considerations related to treatment.
Explain the short-term and long-term impact of this diabetes on patients including effects of drugs treatments.
use these references in paper
Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins..
Kargiotis, O., Paschali, A., Messinis, L., & Papathanasopoulos, P. (2010). Quality of life in multiple sclerosis: Effects of current treatment options. International Review of Psychiatry, 22(1), 67–82.
Peterson, K., Silverstein, J., Kaufman, F., & Warren-Boulton, E. (2007). Management of type 2 diabetes in youth: An update. American Family Physician, 76(5), 658–664.
Diabetes is a condition in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin or none at all, or does not properly utilize the insulin that is produced by the body. Insulin is the hormone that regulates the amount of sugar/glucose in the blood. Diabetes results to high levels of sugar in the blood, which can be harmful to blood vessels, nerves, and organs. This paper discusses the different types of diabetes, treatment of type 2 diabetes and short and long-term term effects of diabetes on the patient including effects of drug treatments.
According to Clark (2015), type 1 diabetes commonly known as Juvenile diabetes occurs the pancreatic beta cells are mistakenly attacked and killed by the immune system. Very little or no insulin is discharged into the body, subsequently resulting to buildups of sugar into the blood, instead of this sugar being utilized as energy. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body is unable to properly utilize the insulin that is discharged or doesn’t make sufficient insulin. Subsequently, instead of sugar being utilized as energy, it builds up in the blood. Gestational diabetes is a form of temporary diabetes that only happens during pregnancy. It is caused by lack of sufficient insulin during the setting of insulin resistance (Clark, 2015).
According to Arcangelo et al (2017), drug therapy is usually the mainstay of treatment of chronic and acute diseases. A healthcare practitioner is tasked with the significant role of developing a treatment plan with the patient, and a central part of health promotion treatment of disease is drug therapy. Metformin is the first-line medication for type 2 diabetes. According to Hostalek et al (2015), metformin acts mainly by promoting the insulin’s action in the liver to lessen the rate of hepatic glucose production. Improvements in the action of insulin in skeletal muscle also add to the therapeutic action of metformin, majorly leading to increased disposal of non-oxidative glucose. These two actions lessen blood glucose in hyperglycemia setting, with minimal potential for prompting hypoglycemia Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay.
Davoren (2014) notes that Metformin is usually started at a low dose of 500 mg per day and normally with food, to minimize the risk of adverse gastrointestinal effects. The dose should be slowly escalated. It is rare for patients who have tolerated metformin for several years to experience gastrointestinal adverse effects. Interventions with exercise and diet are as effective as metformin therapy in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Peterson et al (2007) note that reduction of weight and impaired glucose tolerance accompanied by healthier ways of eating and regular physical activity might assist in the prevention or delaying of the development of types two diabetes in youths who are at high risk.
According to Kargiotis et al (2010), health-related quality of life evaluations attempts to define the effect of a disease on patients, as experienced by the patients themselves. According to Marin-Penalver et al (2016), hypoglycemia is the major short-term effect of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. Long-term effects include nerve damage, blood vessel, and heart diseases, kidney disease, hearing problems, hearing problems and vision problems. Vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, malabsorption of vitamin B12 and abdominal bloating are the major adverse effects of metformin (Marin-Penalver et al, 2016).
Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires timely treatment because it can result to serious and life-threatening complications. Proper management of levels of blood sugar through medications, regular exercise, and healthy eating maintains appropriates levels of blood sugar and minimizes the risk of one developing diabetes-related complications.
Arcangelo, V., Peterson, A., Wilbur, V., Reihold, J. (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach. Ambler, PA: Lippincott Wiliams&Wilkins.
Clark, K.(2015). Types of Diabetes-Understanding the Symptoms, Causes and Differences Between Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes and Pre Diabetes and How They Affect Your Body. North Carolina: Lulu.com.
Davoren, P. (2014). Safe prescribing of metformin in diabetes. Australian Prescriber, 37:2-5.
Hostalek, U., Gwitt, M., & Hildemann, S. (2015). Therapeutic Use of Metformin in Prediabetes and Diabetes Prevention. Drugs, 75(10): 1071-1094.
Kargiotis, O., Paschali, A., Messinis, L., & Papathanasopoplous, P. (2010). Quality of life in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects of current treatment options. International Review of Psychiatry, 22(1): 67-82.
Marin-Penalver, Martin-Timon, I., Seveillano-Collantes, C., & Canizo-Gomez, F. (2016). Update on the Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. World Journal of Diabetes, 7(17): 354-395.
Peterson, K., Silverstein, J., Kaufman, F., & Warren-Boulton, E. (2007). Management of type 2 diabetes in youth: an update. American Family Physician, 76(5): 658-664 Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay.
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