Diabetes is typified by elevated levels of blood glucose due to the problems with insulin secretion or insulin action. Diabetes affects the ability of the body to use energy from food (McCall & Farhy, 2014). The focus of this paper is to present types of diabetes and discuss medication used in treating the selected type of diabetes, dietary consideration as well as the impact of the disease on patients Diabetes and Drug Treatments Assignment.
Types of Diabetes
Most common kinds of diabetes include; gestational diabetes, type 1 diabetes (juvenile), and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune attacks and destroys the pancreas cells responsible for producing insulin hormone. When these cells are destroyed, the pancreas loses the ability to produce insulin or produces only small amounts of insulin (Christoffersson et al, 2016). In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is not able to generate insulin or if the body does not utilize the produced insulin effectively. On the other hand, gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy when the action of insulin is blocked by pregnancy hormones and this causes insulin resistance and elevated blood glucose levels (Christoffersson et al, 2016).
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Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes occurs due to total insulin deficiency and hence treatment involves supplementing insulin. Insulin is administered through subcutaneous injection or by using insulin pump (Arcangelo et al, 2017). Dosage of insulin is adjusted according to the food intake, physical activities, as well as blood glucose levels. Insulin administration aims to lower blood glucose level to near normal range (4.4–7.8 mmol/l). Type 1 diabetes requires continuous monitoring of blood glucose levels to ensure the levels are not too high or extremely low (Arcangelo et al, 2017).
Physical activity is important in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. Dietary monitoring is also essential and patients are encouraged to eat foods with low glycemic index in order to ensure modest increase of blood sugar; this gives the body adequate time to respond to the insulin dose. The timing of meals is very crucial and meals should match insulin doses. Individuals with type 1 diabetes should avoid skipping meals or eating late in order to avoid the risk of hypoglycemia (Aathira & Jain, 2014).
Short-term effects of type 1 include low blood sugar levels where the blood glucose level may drop to extremely low levels (Laursen et al, 2017). Long-term effects include microvascular complications as a result of high blood glucose levels damaging the blood vessels in the body. Microvascular complications include cataracts/vision loss; kidney damage, and nerve disease. In addition, plague may accumulate due to constant high blood glucose levels and cause heart attack, stroke or peripheral vascular disease (Laursen et al, 2017) Diabetes and Drug Treatments Assignment.
Maintaining a healthy range of blood glucose levels through appropriate meal planning, adhering to treatment regimen and physical activities can avoid complications of diabetes (Aathira & Jain, 2014).
Treatment of Type 1 involves insulin supplementation through subcutaneous injection or by using insulin pump. Dietary planning, meal timing and physical activities are essential in the management of diabetes type 1. Short-term effects of type 1 diabetes are hypoglycemia especially with insulin, while long-term effects include microvascular complications.
Aathira R & Jain V. (2014). Advances in management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes. 5(5): 689–696.
Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Christoffersson G, Teresa R & Mathias V. (2016). Recent advances in understanding Type 1 Diabetes. F1000Res. 5(110).
Laursen D, Bang K, Ulla C & Frolich A. (2017). Assessment of short and long-term outcomes of diabetes patient education using the health education impact questionnaire (HeiQ). BMC Res Notes. 10(213).
McCall A & Farhy L. (2014). Treating type 1 diabetes: from strategies for insulin delivery to dual hormonal control. Minerva Endocrinol.38(2): 145–163 Diabetes and Drug Treatments Assignment.
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