Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students

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This is a research paper that I’m planning to submit for an International Research Conference. I will send you the part of the INTRODUCTION, and the data gathered related to the study. An ABSTRACT of the study will be needed. You can change the title when necessary.

Direct Instruction: Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed students

Introduction

The hallmark indicators ofdevelopmentally delayed children includeunderachievement in reading, writing, or mathematics despite possessing average to above average intelligence, quality instruction approaches, regular school attendance, and appropriate learning environments Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students. The Individual with Disabilities Education Improvement Act describes developmentally delayed children who are aged three to nine with delays in one or more of the following areas: physical, cognitive, communication, social or emotional or adaptive development(Yell, Shriner, & Katsiyannis, 2017). There have been growing concerns over the prevalence of developmental disabilities among school-going children in the United States, with 1 out of 6 children having cognitive challenges such as autismspectrum disorders (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD), and developmental delays that require more health and education services. More than 5% of disability incidences were observed in children aged 5 years or less(Yell, Shriner, & Katsiyannis, 2017). Premised on this data, IDEA (2004) has outlined certain guidelines for public schools to ensure that learners aged between 3 and 21 years and living with cognitive disabilities acquire access to high quality education services Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students.


Reading proficiency in individual learners with developmental delays has been a topic of contention among psychological scholars. An important component of reading is the ability of the reader to access prior knowledge of the text and integrate it into their current understanding of the text to promote understanding. Nation et.al. (2006), while assessing a group of children with ASD, noted that a significant portion of them experienced severe difficulties of reading and decoding(Filderman et.al.,2018). The article addressed reading and decoding difficulties as a complex skill, but also noted that learners with autism suffered severe delays in reading comprehension while some could not read words or portions of texts accurately. Hyperlexia, a situation in which children begin to read very early and perform well beyond their expected abilities, occurs in children with developmental delays and especially among those with autism and mental retardation. Thus, scholars have overemphasized the need for early interventional service for young learners living with cognitive, communication, social or emotional, or adaptive developmental disabilities Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students.

Direct Instruction: features and effectiveness

Scholars have struggled to establish ideal interventions to address the academic and functional needs of children living with cognitive disabilities, with most settling on individualized instruction plans as the ideal and most effective approach. Developed and introduced bySiegfried Engelmann and Wesley Becker, Direct Instruction (DI) is a teaching model that emphasizes carefully planned and properly developed lessons that are underpinned around little learning increments, along with teaching tasks that are explicitly defined and prescribed(Shippen, Houchins, Steventon, & Sartor, 2005). DI premises principally on the theory that clearly articulated instructionaimed at eliminating possible misinterpretations can significantly improve learning.Engelmann & Becker (1976) described the overarching elements of DI include highly regimented scripted lessons, ability grouping of students, repetition of content, use of wait time, use of signals, choral responding, fast pacing, and mastery of preceding content before moving on to more difficult content. The DI model is premised on five principled Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students. One of those is that all children can be taught regardless of their cognitive prowess. Besides, the model is premised on the philosophical idea that all children can improve academically and in the sense of self image, and that instructors possess the ability to succeed if adequate training and materials are availed(Kim et.al., 2005). The model is also placed on the principle that low performers and disadvantaged learners must be approached with a faster model of instruction compared to their typically better performing peers(Kim & Axelrod, 2005). Lastly, DI works under the principle that all details of instruction must be regulated to minimize, if not to eliminate misinterpretation of taught information and to optimize the reinforcing effect of teaching on students(Engelmann, Becker, Carnine, & Gersten, 1988). These philosophical principle underpin the effectiveness of DI Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students.

A key feature of DI, as Engelmann et.al (1988) asserts, is that instruction is designed such that students are placed according to their skill level. Instructors who have adopted the model begin their programs by assessing learners’ skills and placing each of them in groups that share same skill level. Flores & Ganz (2007) argue that th fact that the groups are constructed according to the level of the program that suits learners as opposed to their grade levels makes DI a superior model to other models. Also, the structure and design of DI ensures that students acquire and retain a high level mastery of the content being taught Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students. Under the model, ony 10% of the taught content is new material while the remianing 90% encompasses the review and appliation of skills and competencies previously acquired (Engelmann et.al, 1988). A particular feature of the model which fits its use for learners who are developmentaly delayed is that instruction is modified to accommodate the learning rates of each student. Instructors are needed to provide additional instruction within the program to learners who need additional practice in a specific skill. Antipathetically, learners who acquire new skills, and who need to advance to the next level are moved to new placements to grow their redily acquired skills (Flores & Ganz, 2007). Lastly, programs utilizing DI model are field tested with real students and sujected to scruitiny based on the tests prior to publication(Engelmann et.al, 1988).It therefore follows that the program provided to learner is tested for efficacy and proven before use Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students.

A special model of Direct Instruction, Reading Mastery Signature Edition (RMSE) utilizes highly explicit, systmatic nature of instruction to assist learners in their efforts to develop fluent, independent, and high-level. At the core of the RMSE program are three components, the reading strand, the language arts strand, and the literature strand. The reading strand adresses all the five components of reading including fluency, vocabulary,word analysis,phonemic awareness, and comprehension(Eppley, 2011). The component also provides spelling instruction and assisists learners to establish the connection that exists between decoding and spelling patterns Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students. The language arts strand, on the other hand, offers to learners a wide variety of literary forms and text structure, opprtunities to practice vocabulary and comprehension(Eppley, 2011). The literature strand offers students the opportunity to practice vocabulary and comprehnsion approaches, assists them to write aunthntically, and provides them with the opportunity to read independently. RMSE has received significant praise for its flexibility and comprehensiveness as well as its ability to expand and refine instruction (Taylor et.al., 2002). It is also effective for use as a supplemental intervention program and to a limited extent, acomprehensive core reading program Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students.

Purpose of the Research

There is an ongoing body of research exploring the individual components of reading comprehension that are delayed in developmentally delayed learners as well as suggested interventions specifically targeting those areas(Flores & Ganz, 2007). Both previous and current work continue to link the DI teaching model with improved reading comprehension when applied to learners at risk of academic failure, English learners, those with reading disabilities, or young children living with cognitive disabilities including ADS and epilepsy.The current research, with the purpose of adding valuable knowledge to the ongoing discourse, seeks to explore the effectiveness of Direct Instruction (DI) inbridging the gap in reading among learners initially labeled as developmentally delayed (DD). The researcher hypothesizes that developmentally delayed learners taught using the Direct Instruction model will have improved reading and comprehension capabilities Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students.


Research Questions

To what extent does DI program be implemented with developmentally delayed learners?
How effective is DI program with regards to reading comprehension skills in developmentally delayed?
Research Methods Bridging the Gap for Developmentally Delayed Students.

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