Bipolar Depressive Disorder in Pediatrics

Introduction

The current paper will discuss the case for the diagnosis of the bipolar depressive disorder in children in light of the current controversy concerning the issue. The controversy surrounding this diagnosis will be outlined and the consequences of failing to diagnose this childhood disorder will also be discussed. Bipolar Depressive Disorder in Pediatrics

The Bipolar Diagnosis Controversy

Since the early 2000s, there has been a general divide among psychiatrists about the pediatric bipolar disorder (Birmaher, 2013). This was following a discovery of a forty-fold increase in the diagnosis of the disorder from the mid-1900s to 2002 (Wakefield, 2013). This was due to the views of mania in children and what exactly mania entailed in children.

The diagnostic criteria for bipolar divided the disorder into bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymic disorder and bipolar not otherwise specified (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Bipolar I represent the classic manic-depressive disorder and needs to fulfill the criteria for mania followed by an episode of major depression or hypomania.

The redefinition of mania by APA led to the controversial diagnosis divide. According to APA, (2013), the seven criteria A symptoms of mania include inflated self-esteem, more talkative than normal, racing thoughts, less need for sleep, overinvolvement in activities with potential for harm, easily distracted and psychomotor agitation. Mania is present if the patient presents with elevated or expansive mood with at least three of the seven symptoms or irritability with at least four of the seven symptoms.

ORDER A FREE-PLAGIARISM PAPER NOW

            The debate states that mania in a child is hard to diagnose (Birmaher, 2013). The symptoms of irritability coincide with other childhood disorders including ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD) (Lee, 2016). Critics are worried that pediatric bipolar may be nothing more than a misdiagnosed case of other milder childhood mood dysregulation or a response to social stressors such as in reactive attachment disorder (Zeanah, Chesher, & Boris, 2016). Bipolar Depressive Disorder in Pediatrics

A case for diagnosing pediatric bipolar disorder

Pediatric bipolar is an established childhood disorder worthy of a diagnosis (Sadock, Sadock, & Ruiz, 2014). Bipolar disorder does affect children and the rise in diagnoses of the case only represent an awareness of the disorder (Lee, 2016). In the past clinicians did not diagnose it more often because they did not understand the pediatric presentation as it can be different from adult cases.

Bipolar is a mood disorder. Children have been known to suffer from other mood disorders for centuries including major depression and other adult conditions, for example, anxiety, why not bipolar (Frías, Palma, & Farriols, 2015). It would be illogical to accept these other conditions and exclude bipolar from the pediatric population based on unclear grounds.

Consequences of not diagnosing this disorder include a delay in treatment and the unfavorable outcomes of untreated bipolar. The manic-depressive cycles in bipolar predispose the child to school failure, injury to self and others, peer rejection, suicide and substance abuse (Frías, Palma, & Farriols, 2015). They are prone to reckless and harmful behavior. A diagnosis and treatment of this disorder are needed to avoid such outcomes.

Conclusion

A diagnosis of the bipolar depressive disorder in children is possible. Just like depression and anxiety, mood disorder does occur in children and a missed diagnosis predisposes the child to an array of consequences. The presentation may be a bit different from the adult case but it should not hinder assessment and diagnosis. Bipolar Depressive Disorder in Pediatrics

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Birmaher, B. (2013). Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Child and adolescent mental health, 18(3), 140-148.

Frías, Á., Palma, C., & Farriols, N. (2015). Comorbidity in pediatric bipolar disorder: prevalence, clinical impact, etiology, and treatment. Journal of affective disorders, 174, 378-389.Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Lee, T. (2016). Pediatric Bipolar Disorder. Pediatric annals, 45(10), e362-e366.

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Wakefield, J. C. (2013). DSM-5: An overview of changes and controversies. Clinical Social Work Journal, 41(2), 139-154.

Zeanah, C. H., Chesher, T., & Boris, N. W. (2016). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(11), 990–103. Retrieved from http://www.jaacap.com/article/S0890-8567(16)31183-2/pdf

Bipolar Depressive Disorder in Pediatrics

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our Guarantees

Money-back Guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism Guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision Policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy Policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

4-hour deadlines

Your urgent tasks will be completed within 4 hours. Your discussion responses and late orders will be will be handled fast and we still maintain our quality.

Read more
error: